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Political Science

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Who was Montesquieu ?Montesquieu was born on January 18th, 1689 in La Brède. Montesquieu is a political thinker and a moralist, a precursor of the sociology, a philosopher and a French writer during the enlighment periods. When he was a young man, he was fascinated by the sciences. In 1721, Montesquieu publishes anonymously in the book ''Persian Letters'' a short story which talks about the French society seen by exotic Persians. He travels then in Europe and stays one year in England where he observes the constitutional and parliamentary monarchy which replaced the autocratic monarchy. When he returned in his castle of La Brède in the South of Bordeaux, he dedicates itself to his important works which associate story and political philosophy. Moreover, He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. Montesquieu is considered amongst the precursors of anthropology, like Herodotus and Tacitus, to be among the first to extend comparative methods of classification to the political forms in human societies. Montesquieu's most influential and important work was to divide French society into three classes as the monarchy, the aristocracy, and the commons. In 1728, Montesquieu has been elected to the French academy. When he returned to France in 1732, he published Considerations on the causes of the greatness of Roman and their decline, where he tells the history of Roman Empire. Montesquieu died in 1755 in Paris, affected by the yellow fever.

What is The Enlightenment and what happen? The Enlightenment is the period in Western philosophy and intellectual, scientific and cultural life, during the eighteenth century, in which reason was encouraged as the primary source for legitimacy and authority. Developing at the same time in France, Great Britain, Netherlands, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Most of Europe was caught up, including the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia, and Scandinavia, along with Latin America in influencing the Haitian Revolution. The authors of the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, the American Declaration of Independence, the United States Bill of Rights, were motivated by Enlightenment principles. The Enlightenment was less a set of ideas than it was a set of values. At its centre was a critical questioning of traditional institutions, morals,

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