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Political Idea

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Throughout time there have always been some philosophers who present theories, which have philosophical themes in religious thinking that, are in connection to current social and political ideas. Thinkers like St. Anselm, St. Thomas Aquinas, and John Hick all express their views and feelings on the existence of God, as well as the human race. Their theories are based off asking questions like why are we here and how do we prove God's existence? Is there really life after death and where does the soul go? They also explore the ideas and theories behind the nature of man and what relationship that has with the existence of God. With one goal in mind, at three different times in history each have resulted in the same conclusion, that God does exist and his existence is a result of knowing and understanding why he exists. They all prove their theories in different ways, but their outcome is one in the same.

St. Anselm takes the Ontological argument to explain to existence of God. An ontological argument is simply an analysis of the nature or being of something, where we would attempt to define the object, to understand its nature and to be able to list all its qualities and attributes. However, it is important to keep in mind the difference between appearance and reality when using the ontological argument to define God's existence. There are things that appear to be real in the presence of God, but are indeed only an image of the mind. Anselm begins first with the meaning of the word God. According to most Jews and Christians, the term God means one that is greatest in power, in knowledge, in goodness and in reality; which then can be translated to be God is conceived as the most perfect being. Since this view of God that accords with the faith commitments of most believers, Anselm uses it in his ontological analysis. His definition becomes "that being than which none greater can be conceived", making God not only the greatest being, but yet the greatest conceivable being.

Based on Anselm's definition he makes the argument that for a being that exists both in understanding and in reality, which would be greater than a being existing in understanding alone. Therefore, as Anselm stated "even a fool is convinced that something exists in the understanding, at least, than which nothing greater can be conceived. For, when he hears of this, he understands it. And whatever is understood exists in the understanding." This theory proves that God is the highest being on heaven and earth, and is above anyone else as being the greatest. If this is true, than it can be stated that God does exist. So that God is the greatest conceivable being known to man, and to know God exists, we must know what he is and how to explain his presence. When we can sense and explain God's existence wthen we begin to understand the concept of God, and to know that such an almighty being exists is the greatest truth and knowledge man could ever know. Anselm most certainly brought a clear view on the presence of God, and from that knowledge, St. Thomas Aquinas expanded those ideas to the next level.

St. Thomas Aquinas lived in a critical juncture of western culture when the arrival of the Aristotelian corpus in Latin translation reopened the question of the relation between faith and reason. Many contemporary philosophers are unsure how to read St. Thomas Aquinas. Nonetheless, among his writings, were found works that anyone would recognize as philosophical and commentaries on Aristotle increasing interest

of Aristotelian scholars. For Aquinas his best known work is the Summa Theologiae. In his writing he makes his arugment of God's existence

from natural stand point, which is a way of using what we know about nature to discover truths about God. This is based on knowledge we first gain from the senses. Aquinas doesn't agree with the ontological argument. He instead uses the disputed question format to prove his theory. Two important objections he makes are one, to any argument for God is the presence of evil in the world. For if there is exists an all-powerful, all-good God, then there shouldn't be evil in the world. Two we can account for the world on its own without appealing to God as its creator. Aquinas makes these objections to help prove his theory.

In the Summa Theologiae, Aquinas proves God's existence in five ways; one through motion, two the relates to motion theory, three possibility

and necessity, four gradition of things and five governance. Each of these ways helps to establish understanding and meaning to God's life. However, it is the third way that needs to be looked at closely. According to Aquinas "The third way is taken from possibility and necessity, and runs thus. We find in nature things that are possible to be and not to be, since they are found to be generated and to be corrupted, and consequently, it is possible for them to be and not to be. But is impossible for these always to exist, for that which can not-be at some time is not. Therefore, if everything can not-be, then at some time there was nothing in existinence, but that which does not exist begins to exist only through something already existing. Therefore, if at one time nothing was in existence, it would have been impossible for anything to have begun to exist; and thus even now nothing would be in existence-which is absurd. Therefore, not all beings are merely possible, but there must exist something the existence

of which is necessary. But every necessary things which have their necessity caused by another, as has been already proved in regard to efficient causes. Therefore we cannot but admit the existence of some being having of itself its own necessity, and not receiving it from another, but rather causing in others their necessity. This all men speak of as God." In this statement Aquina is saying Everything is Contingent. Meaning there is a collective sense of "All", distributed sense of "each and everything" and nothing exists; idea that there is nothing out of something. God brought everything into existence

and because of that existence



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