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The late 1800's in America was the start of many new things. In fact it was the time when all sorts of new and wonderful thing were being invented that really made things easier, and faster. Moving modern civilization at that point on. Thomas Alva Edison was the first to get the ball rolling when in 1876 established the first research lab. Edison also as you know invented the light bulb which of course literally lit the way for many other inventors to follow in a lot of ways he opened the door. Another great inventor is Alexander Graham Bell who invented the telephone in 1876 as well.

Later came the brilliant discovering of the transcontinental railroad. One man that was very influential was George M. Pullman. Pullman put together a factory for railroad cars. Then in 1864 while the railroad theme continued, C'redit Mobilier, which was a factory that stockholders in the Union Pacific Railroad formed was used to cheat people by changing them x amount of dollars to lay down track then taking about three times that much and keeping it. A bit along the road congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act in 1877. this was a n act that let the federal government control the comings and goings of all railroad activities.

By now, new businesses and new business ventures were everything. Which meant that the ever-remembered philosophy of Social Darwinism came back into the picture but this time it applied to businesses and new companies. For example "survival of the fittest" meaning that only the really strong and powerful businesses could survive. Which the led to the ideas of both vertical integration and horizontal consolidation. In 1980 Congress passed the Sherman Anitrust Act which was an act that any forming of trusts in order with free trade was illegal. Although they handled this act rather poorly because they did not clearly state everything that needed to be stated.




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