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United States Congressional System & United Kingdom Parliamentary

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Matthew D. Williams

The Legislative Process – POS 3424

Professor Idelsy Llanes

Florida International University

Around the world there are various systems of legislative bodies that are law-making institutions.  However, this paper will discuss two main ones:  The United States of America
(the "United States") Congressional system and the United Kingdom (the "United Kingdom") of Parliamentary.  On or around March 4, 1789 Congress of the United States was established by the Constitution, at New York Federal Hall.  But until April 1, 1789 business was conducted due to waiting for the majority of fifty-nine (59) members of the House to arrive to make a quorum.  
And the United Kingdom parliamentary, was convened on or around the year 1215.

The United States Legislative Branch is comprised of two coequal branches:  the Senate and the House of Representatives – together they make the United States Congress.  The Founding Fathers decided that checks and balances would ensure that no one branch of government would be too powerful ( Staff, "Checks and Balances", 2017).  The Senate of the United States is composed of two senators from each state with an elected term for six (6) years  
(U.S. Constitution, Article I, section 3, clause 1).  The United States Senate power and authority include but not limited to: approving presidential appointments, and advise and consent to treaties within foreign countries.  As for the House of Representatives of the United States, it is composed of four hundred and thirty-five (435) elected members, divided by the population within each states, and membership is reapportioned every ten (10) yeas after census has been conducted.  Also, each House member term is only for two years (Davidson, Oleszek, Lee, & Schickler, Congress and its members, 2018).  The power that the House of Representative has through the Constitution includes but not limited to: initiate revenue bills and initiate impeachment of public officials and the president ("Origins and Development", 2018).

Also, there is the Executive Branch.  The Executive Branch is comprised of the following: The President, The Vice President, and The Cabinet.  This body of branch enforces the law.  
The President, also known the head of state also is the Commander-in-Chief.  The Constitution, gives the President the power to lead the county.  Each President serves a four (4) year term and can only serve two (2) times.  The Vice President is the Second Highest Officer of the state.  Within the Constitution, the Vice President is to act as presiding officer of the Senate.  Also, in the event the President passes away, resigns and or is impeached the Vice President will become the President or acting President.  And the Cabinet are advisors to the President. Some of the Cabinet include: The Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense and Department of Education (Frieden, Lake, & Schultz, 2016).  The duties of these departments and other the departments are to insure the President and the Vice President are kept abreast of everything that is going on in the nation. And the last branch is judicial. In which it merely interprets the laws (Frieden, Lake, & Schultz, 2016).  

Every country does not have the Congressional system to impalement laws.  For example, the United Kingdom has a Parliament.  A Parliament is comprised of three branches: the Monarch, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons.  Like the House of Representatives, the House of Commons are elected represented that debate big issues, and proposes laws, amend existing ones and challenges the Governments work.  The House of Lords is the second chamber and shares the making and shaping of laws with the House of Commons which is comprised of eight hundred members.   And the Monarch in compression is like the executive branch.  The Monarch is mainly ceremonial. The Monarch with the Prime Minister them abreast of also what's going on.



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