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The Great Pyramid

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Thesis Statement: The Great Pyramid is a mystery to the modern age, even though its

purpose; uses, history, and condition have challenged explorers for centuries it will

always be considered one of the greatest wonders of the world.

1. Why was the Great Pyramid built?

A. Who built the Great Pyramid?

B. Why was it built?

C. Comparative theories.

2. What was the Great Pyramid used for?

A. Religious uses.

B. Astronomical uses.

C. Environmental uses.

3. How was the Great Pyramid built?

A. Workers.

B. Dimensions.

C. Surrounding community.

Why the Great Pyramid of Giza was built is a question that has been challenging archeologists, philosophers, and historians for hundreds of years. What we do know is that the Egyptians built it during the fourth dynasty under the rule of King Khufu in the area known as Giza. (i) The amount of people that it took to build such a massive structure has been the subject of dispute for hundreds of years. The Greek historian Herodotus believed that it took one hundred thousand workers over a twenty-year period to build the great pyramid, but recent archaeologists using modern calculations believe that the pyramid was built by four thousand primary laborers and sixteen to twenty thousand secondary workers but also over a twenty year time period. (ii)

There are many competing theories on why the great pyramid was built, none of them are definite but all of them are interesting. Many other pyramids have been built in the Middle East but none of the same stature. Other pyramids have been found to be burial chambers for various kings and pharaohs, but the Great Pyramid contained no burial remnants even though its essential design is the same as other pyramids, even containing special chambers for a king and a queen. (iii) Modern day scientists have discovered many interesting correlations between the location and dimensions of the Great Pyramid, that relate to the earth, the stars, and the seasons. (iv)

Several controversies have risen over the last hundred years about the reasons for the building of the Great Pyramid. Some theories believe that the Great Pyramid was built by or aided by alien beings because of the precise nature of its location and dimensions. While others believe that, the pyramid represented a symbol of ultimate power for the king. There are those who think the pyramid was a temple or an astrological observatory. As well as some who think it was just a big sundial to tell of the time and change of seasons. Some theorists also believe that it may have been a combination of all these things. (v)

According to Egyptian and Sumerian mythology, there was a battle between two families of gods for supremacy and control over the ancient lands and the pyramids of Giza were strategic strongholds for the gods. (vi) The different shafts and chambers of the great pyramids are said to point to various constellations that represent several Egyptian gods. (vii) It is also thought by some that the pyramid may have been a place where Egyptians made a pilgrimage to honor the gods or their pharaoh who, according to legend was a descendent of the gods. (viii)

Scientists have discovered that in the ceiling of the grand gallery the thirty-six ceiling stones were individually removable. Because of this, it is believed that during the construction of the pyramid it could have been used as a stellar observatory. They have also noticed unusual facts, such as the descending passage of the pyramid pointed to the pole star Alpha Draconis, which was the North Star of that time period. The southern shaft in the king's chamber pointed to the star Al Nitak which was associated with the god Osiris. The southern shaft of the queen's chamber pointed to the star Sirius which was associated with the god Isis. It has also been discovered that the Giza pyramids are a mirror reflection of the Orion constellation. (ix)

There are many interesting theories about possible environmental uses of the pyramid, seeking what it may have been used or intended for. The Great Pyramid has been shown to clearly indicate the arrival solstices and equinoxes. At noon on the spring equinox, the pyramid casts no shadow because of its shape and latitude. The Great Pyramid is stated to be the most accurately aligned structure in existence and faces true north with only 3/60ths of a degree of error. The Great Pyramid is also said to be located at the center of the land mass of the earth, the east/west parallel and the north/south meridian that crosses the most land on earth intersect exactly with the Great Pyramid. There are also several measurements outside and within the pyramid that when divided by 100 or Pi equals exactly 365.24 the exact number of days in a year. Other dimensions within the pyramid are said to calculate the mean distance to the sun, the sun's radius, the earth's polar radius, the radius of the earth, and the precession of the equinoxes. (x)

Because the Great Pyramid is the only remaining structure of the seven wonders



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