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Speech On Non-Verbal Business Communication

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Good morning to my nice teacher and all my friends. Today I would like to talk about Non- Verbal communication. The definition of "nonverbal communication involves those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by both the source [speaker] and his or her use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or receiver [listener]. Basically it is sending and receiving messages in a variety of ways without the use of verbal codes (words). It is both intentional and unintentional. Most speakers / listeners are not conscious of this. It includes but is not limited to touch, glance, eye contact (gaze), volume, vocal nuance, proximity, gestures, facial expression, intonation, dress, posture, smell, word choice and syntax, sounds (paralanguage).Broadly speaking, there are two basic categories of non-verbal language nonverbal messages produced by the body and nonverbal messages produced by the broad setting (time, space, silence).

Why is non-verbal communication important? Basically, it is one of the key aspects of communication (and especially important in a high-context culture). It has multiple functions. Used to repeat the verbal message (e.g. point in a direction while stating directions. Often used to accent a verbal message. (e.g. verbal tone indicates the actual meaning of the specific words).Often complement the verbal message but also may contradict. E.g.: a nod reinforces a positive message (among Americans); a "wink" may contradict a stated positive message. Regulate interactions (non-verbal cues covey when the other person should speak or not speak).May substitute for the verbal message (especially if it is blocked by noise, interruption, etc) i.e. gestures (finger to lips to indicate need for quiet), facial expressions (i.e. a nod instead of a yes). Note the implications of the proverb: "Actions speak louder than words." In essence, this underscores the importance of non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication is especially significant in intercultural situations. Probably non-verbal differences account for typical difficulties in communicating.

Thus, cultural Differences in Non-verbal Communication. There are General Appearance and Dress. All cultures are concerned for how they look and make judgments based on looks and dress. Americans, for instance, appear almost obsessed with dress and personal attractiveness. Consider differing cultural standards on what is attractive in dress and on what constitutes modesty. Note ways dress is used as a sign of status? then is Body Movement. We send information on attitude toward person (facing or leaning towards another), emotional statue (tapping fingers, jiggling coins), and desire to control the environment (moving towards or away from a person). More than 700,000 possible motions we can make so impossible to categorize them all! But just need to be aware the body movement and position is a key ingredient in sending messages.

Gestures are impossible to catalog them all. But need to recognize: 1) incredible possibility and variety and 2) that an acceptable in one's own culture may be offensive in another. In addition, amount of gesturing varies from culture to culture. Some cultures are animated; other restrained. Restrained cultures often feel animated cultures lack manners and overall restraint. Animated cultures often feel restrained cultures lack emotion or interest. Even simple things like using hands to point and count differ.

Pointing: US with index finger; Germany with little finger; Japanese with entire hand (in fact most Asians consider pointing with index finger to be rude) . Counting: Thumb = 1 in Germany, 5 in Japan, middle finger for 1 in Indonesia. Otherwise, Facial Expressions, while some say that facial expressions are identical, meaning attached to them differs. Majority opinion is that these do have similar meanings world-wide with respect to smiling, crying, or showing anger, sorrow, or disgust. However, the intensity varies from culture to culture. Example like many Asian cultures suppress facial expression as much as possible, many Mediterranean (Latino / Arabic) cultures exaggerate grief or sadness while most American men hide grief or sorrow, some see "animated" expressions as a sign of a lack of control, too much smiling is viewed in as a sign of shallowness,

women smile more than men. The other one, Eye Contact and Gaze in USA, eye contact indicates: degree of attention or interest, influences attitude change or persuasion, regulates interaction, communicates emotion, defines power and status, and has a central role in managing impressions of others. The examples are Western cultures -see direct eye to eye contact as positive (advise children to look a person in the eyes). But within USA, African-Americans use more eye contact when talking and less when listening with reverse true for Anglo Americans. This is a possible cause for



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