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Key Steps for Writing a Business Plan and Preparing a Budget

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EXERCISE WEEK 10
ACCT 5906
KEY STEPS FOR WRITING A BUSINESS PLAN AND PREPARING A BUDGET

AIM:

This introductory exercise aims to introduce participants to the key steps in business planning and budgeting and to work in groups to exchange ideas about the topics.

REQUIREMENTS:

  1. Group
    Your group will be required to present your budget in class in week 10.
    You will be given around 5 minutes to present.
    You are encouraged to use handouts and/or posters and/or role plays. You do not need to use power points.
  2. Individual
    Each student must either prepare his/her own budget for the business (see step 3 below), and have this ready to hand in at the start of class, or your group may hand in a group budget and all students in the group will receive the same mark.

TASKS

Participants divide into groups of 5-6 persons.
Each team member introduces themselves to the team.

In the group, the participants discuss and agree on the key tasks needed in the business planning process.

Steps in business planning process

--‐ Develop an idea for your business
--‐ Do your research (customers, competitors, legal requirements)
--‐ Write a business plan (includes timetable, funding sources, marketing plan) --‐ Evaluate the business plan
--‐ Register your company
--‐ Start a bookkeeping system
--‐ Obtain the relevant materials/supplies/products etc.
--‐ Implement your marketing plan

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--‐ Start the production/service
--‐ Make an Annual Report and Annual Accounts
--‐ Make an evaluation and plan future development

In your groups, you must undertake the following in preparation for your presentation (note, your budget should be the main part of your presentation);

1. Develop an idea for your business and a brief profile of your business

The business profile describes your business, including its name, location and purpose/vision. It often also includes information about the business owners, such as their expertise, experience and education, and the vision of the business which will underpin the successful operation of the business.

Summarise in 200 words:

  •   What’s the name of your business?
  •   What does your business do?
  •   What is your vision?

Examples of vision statements

  •   'There will be a personal computer on every desk running Microsoft software.' (Microsoft's original vision statement)
  •   'Our vision is to be earth's most customer centric company; to build a place where people can come to find and discover anything they might want to buy online.' (Amazon.com)
  •   'To build a community of coffee lovers in Sydney, by serving the best coffee at the best possible prices.' (local café)
  •   'Our salon will change the way you think about a haircut, and leave you glowing both inside and out.' (local hairdresser)

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2. Products or services and market analysis

The product or service and market analysis identifies, describes and analyses the products and services you offer, your target market, your market share and your competitors. Use this analysis to make decisions about pricing products and services and the location of your business.

You must provide a quantitative description of the size of the opportunity for your business

You must answer the following questions:

  •   Who are your customers?
  •   Who are your competitors
  •   What is your point of differentiation? (what makes you better than your competitors?)
  •   What is the size of your revenue opportunity? / how much sales can you expect to

generate?

Eg. if you plan to launch a new mobile phone, your opportunity estimate could look like this:

o There are around 30 million mobile phone subscribers in Australia
o Customers in year 1: 0.5% x 30,000,000 = 150,000 customers
o Pricepermobilesold:$390
o Estimated revenue in year 1: $390 x 150,000 customers = $58,500,000

Note: You should use the sizing of your revenue opportunity to develop your budget (see 3 below).

3. Cash Budget

Your cash flow is the money you have coming in from revenue and going out for expenses. Good cash flow management will ensure you always have money available to pay your expenses when they are due.

Use this analysis to develop the planned total sale and the planned total expenses for the next 6- 12 months.

Consider the following questions:

  •   What resources do you need to run your business (e.g. staff, material, marketing, production equipment)
  •   How much will the resources cost?
  •   How much equity will be invested into the business?
  •   Are you cash flow positive in all months?
  •   If not, how will you cover the short fall?

Task: Use the following Cash Budget template to complete a Budget for a 6 or 12 months period

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January $

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February $

March $

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April $

May $

June $

Cash Inflows

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Share capital

Sales receipts

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Total Cash Inflows

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Cash Outflows

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Material

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Wages

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Tax

Overhead

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Non-current assets

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Total Cash Outflows

Net Cash Flow

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Balance brought forward

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Balance carried forward

See Chapter 15 page 507, in Bazley and Hancock for an example.

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