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History Study Chapter

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Section II

Money Crops:

31: Tobacco became the first important money crop in the South, despite some drawbacks. It is a addictive substance. The hope of profit overruled better judgment. The places are Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina.

32. Rice was raised in the tide water, especially in Georgia and the Carolinas.

33. Indigo proved a good second crop because it grew off-season from both rice and tobacco. Workers could stay busy all year. Harvested indigo was laid in vats to ferment.

34. Indigo was an especially important crop in South Carolina.

35. Planters relied heavily on slave labor to perform the difficult tasks in planting these money crops.

36 Slaves had learned advanced skills in Africa ( how to grow plants).

37. Hundred Of slaves died early deaths because of the danger (long hours in terrible work conditions and received a little reward for their work.) of their jobs.

Corn

38. The largest food corn in all the colonies was corn, also known as maize. (corn could grow almost anywhere, was easy to hoe and weed, and grew quickly. Every part of corn plant was put some practical use.)

39. The frontier settler typified the American core values of growth and individualism. *self sufficient

Section III Colonial challenges

40. The colonial challenge was the colonists’ relationship with the Indians. As the colonies grew, it became harder and harder to maintain good relations with the Indians.

41. As the colonists spread out, they often settled on lands, that had been inhabited by Indians for many years.

42 reasons why Indians do not Europeans:

1). Indians were driven away and had less access to sources of food, such as deer or fish.

2). Indians were also threatened by the greater numbers of Europeans and their powerful wagons.

3). Indian leaders felt that they were losing power over their own people.

42 At times, both the colonists and the Indians captured, held for ransom, or killed members of other group.

Missions the Indians

43. Many colonists were hoped to convert the Indians to Christianity: 1600 Europeans send missionaries to the Indians.

44. Richard Hakluyt a man, who strongly supported exploration, wrote that “this western discoverie will be greatly for the enlargement of the gospel of Christ.

45.  Why colony want to convert Indians:

1). A genuine concern for the Indians’ soul.

2.) The settles believe that God’s instruction to subdue the earth meant Indians should become farmers,

3). If the Indians could be converted, they might become more like Europeans. This would mean they could be controlled and America would be a safer place the live.

What does easterners do to converted Indians:

1). Both Protestants and Catholics sent missionaries to the colonies.

2). French sent missionaries around their land around Great Lake and the St. Lawrence River.

3). In the British Colonies, the Puritans were the most active participants in Indian missions.

4). other colonies set up schools and colleges for Indians.

44. The colonists believed that civilizing and converting the Indians went hand-in-hand (work together) but it was hard for the Indians to accept a different culture and a new religion and language.

45. Many more resented the loss of land and power. From time to time, violence erupted between and the colonists and the Indians, later was even more destructive.

46. Massachusetts Bay (Puritans), the Pequot were one of the most powerful tribes in the area.

47. (two Englishmen murdered) the Indians raided the settles, and the colonists declared war in 1637.

48. By 1675, the son of Massasoit ruled the Indians living near the colonists. Massasoit was the Indian leader who had helped the first colonists in Plymouth. Metacomet, or Phillip as the new leader was called by the Europeans, dislike the English.

49. Southern governor, William Berkley, wanted to try to keep the peace with the Indians.

50. The Indian burned the Jamestown in September 1676.

51. The colonists, many of whom knew God’s Word, failed to love their neighbors as themselves. As a result, the colonists and the later the United Sates often treated the Indians unjustly.

52. Each of three types of colonies licensed by the crown-royal, proprietary, or charter.

53. Charter colonies: elected all their leaders (governor, judges and legislators). They had the least instruction from Britain.

54. Proprietor colonies: the proprietary or his heirs named the governor.

55. Royal colonies: the king chose the Governor himself. Governor usually stays in England but only served for five years.

56. all the colonies but the charter colonies, the governor was initially quite powerful.

57. A publican form of government became an early feature of American life.

58. The ideas for the colonial court systems came from England.

59. the main tax was a property tax. (anyone who owned land or other valuable property paid a certain amount to the colony, depending on how much he owned.)

60. Poll tax: the citizens paid before they could vote, expect the governor and lieutenant governor. A poll tax in New York in 1702 was a graduated tax. (rich people pay more than poor people pay)

61. Although the Brithish government sometimes exerted control, for the most part the colonists ran their own towns and counties.

62. A town meeting was the purest form of democracy, or direct government, by the people in America. The average citizen had his own say in a town meeting, and he did not rely on an elected representative to speak for him.

63. A town meeting local issues were settled by majority vote. Other issues were settled as well.

64. What do people do about poor people? “Round the town” to live several weeks with each family. “Putting out”---a single family provided food and shelter and received money from the town for giving it.

65. Lager towns built almshouses where both the “honest poor” and the criminals lived.

Bald words:

  1. Great Migration: nearly ten thousands people settled during the ten years of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. (New England)
  2. Natural increase: as more families come the America, the population grew naturally. These kind of growth was more important to the colonies than immigration.  
  3. Frontier: was undeveloped area at the edge of the settled areas. All three colonial regions constantly had a frontier. Easterners often called the frontier the “back country”
  4. Middle Passage: the Africans’ journey to the New World was called Middle Passage., because it was the middle part of trade ships’ route around the Atlantic.
  5. Conestoga wagons: to carry all of their belongings. These wagons became popular and were used to haul freight until railroads were built in 1800s. the travelers often use these wagons.
  6. Subsistence farmers: who able to raise just enough crops and livestock to provide for their family.
  7. Plantations: since greater profits could be made if these crops were raised in large fields and tended by Laborers Rivers, large farms of southern culture.
  8. Tidewater: a wide coastal plain gave these colonies plenty of flat farmland. Areas along coastal rivers and inlets.
  9. * Triangular trade: as the colonists began to produce extra goods beyond what they needed to survive a trade network developed. Produce passed between the Americas, Europe, and Africa. The reason it called it the trade routes followed a triangle shape on the map.
  10. John Eliot: one Puritan minister learned the language of the Algonquin Indians in Massachusetts. In 1663, he printed the entire Bible (the first time). He also set up several“praying towns’’。
  11. Praying town: Indian who had become Christians lived in praying town to learn about European law, manner, and town life.
  12. Pequot War: New England, the colonists ambushed an Indian fort and killed as many Indians as they could. The rest were captured and sold as slaves in New England and in the west Indies. This was the first time the Puritans allowed the practice of slavery, either of Indians or Africans, in the New World.
  13. King Philip’s War: New England six hundred colonists and three thousand Indians died during King Philip’s War. In the end so many Indians died in the war that they were not able to maintain their land or their way of life, but the colonists continued to move farther and father west.
  14. Bacon’s Rebellion: Southern Colonies, one of the worst incidents involving the Indians. Bacon’s Rebellion began with the Indians and ended with violence among the colonists.
  15. Militia: the local army.
  16. Power of purse: the legislature had this power. They paid the governor’s salary and financed government activities. If the governor did not what they wanted him to do, they could refuse to pay for his programs or even refuse to pay his salary.
  17. Justices of the peace: governor appointed local justices of peace. To try those accused of crimes and to settle disputes between citizens. The justices also collected taxes, granted licenses, recorded deeds to property, and served other public needs. The justices even conduced the elections. This system worked well because the justices knew the people in their communities.
  18. Township: the basic unit of government in New England.
  19. Freeholder: white male property owners, or freeman, attended town meeting.

Things will test on the appear

No road building during…. (F)

Black salves they often served in upper class. (T)

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