Experiment: Testing Rates of Reactions

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Experiment: Testing rates of reactions

Aim: To measure the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid by using different factors such as heat, concentration and particle size.

Introduction:

When you put calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid together they react to form calcium chloride, carbon dioxide and water.

Hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate = calcium chloride + carbon + dioxide + water.

HCl (aq) + CaCO3(s) = CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

Things that affect the reaction rate of this experiment are:

1. The temperature of the hydrochloric acid.

2. The amount of hydrochloric acid.

3. The concentration of the hydrochloric acid.

4. The surface area of the calcium carbonate.

5. The amount of calcium carbonate.

6. The form of calcium carbonate. (It is available in three forms

powder, small stones or large stones)

7. You can speed up the reaction by stirring the solution.

8. You can also change the rate of the reaction by adding a catalyst, which is something that speeds up the reaction.

The controlled variable in this experiment will be the weight of all calcium carbonate forms (powder, small stones and large stones) and the amount of time that is given to fill each balloon (2 minutes).

The dependent variable is the time it takes to fill the balloon and he size it grows to.

The independent variable is the particle size of the calcium carbonate, the heat that the hydrochloric acid is exposed to and the concentration of the hydrochloric acid.

Hypothesis: That the heated hydrochloric acid will cause the calcium carbonate (of each form) to react quicker by filling up the balloon quicker compared to the non-heated hydrochloric acid.

Materials:

2 large chips 10g

4xSmall chips = 10g

4xPowder chips = 10g

60ml of each concentration

Thermometer

Kettle

Water

Packet of balloons

2 beakers

Stopwatch

Ruler

Electronic balance

For safety wear safety goggles to protect eyes from the

Possibility of the acid splashing on face. Also wear a

Protective lab coat to stop the acid splashing and burning clothes

And skin.

Method:

1: Get a large marble chip and measure it (about 10g)

2: Then get small chips and powered chips around the same weight (so experiment is controlled)

3: Get 60ml of 1 concentration of hydrochloric acid

4: Pour 30 ml of the concentration into 2 separate beakers

5: Heat 1 beaker to 60c and leave the beaker 2 as it is

6: Pour 10ml of beaker 2 into each conical flask

7: Label conical flask 1, 2, 3

8: Get 1 state of chips (large, small and powdered) then place it into conical flask 1 then quickly place the balloon over the flask and measure the size in the time period of a minute (take each measurement every 20 seconds so there will be a total of 3 measurements)

9: Repeat step 8 and 9 until all the states are done

10: take out each rock (apart from the powder because it will all be used up) then measure the rock again and get the same weight as each of the chips again (if rock = 8 grams make sure the other small rocks and powder are all 8 grams)

11: complete steps 3-10 again expect with the heated hydrochloric acid

12: empty out the conical flask making sure there is nothing left in it

13: complete steps 1-13 with the second concentration.

14: put data into a graph and conclude.

Results:

 First solution Non-heat heat stone 20-nothing40-nothing60- inflated(5 cm growth)1:20- 5 cm1:40 5cm2-5 cm 20-Nothing40-inflated(5 cm)60-5cm1:20-6cm1:40-6cm2-6cm crushed 20-5 cm40-6cm60-6cm1:20-7 cm1:40-7cm2-8 cm 20-6cm40-6cm60-7cm1:20-8cm1:40-8cm2-8cm powder 20-6cm40-7cm60-8cm1:20-9cm1:40-8cm2-8cm 20cm-7cm40cm-8cm60--8cm1:20-9cm1:40-8cm2-8cm

 Second solution Non-heat heat stone 20-5 cm40-5cm60-6cm1:20-6cm1:40-6cm2-6cm 20-5cm40-6cm60-6cm1:20-6cm1:40-7cm2-7cm crushed 20-6cm40-6cm60-7cm1:20-8cm1:40-9cm2-10cm 20-7cm40-7cm60-8cm1:20-9cm1:40-9cm2-10cm powder 20-6cm40-7cm60-8cm1:20-9cm1:40-8cm2-8cm 20-7cm40-8cm60-9cm1:20-10cm1:40-8cm2-7cm

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