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Austin - The Texas Capital

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Early Settlers

For several hundred years before the arrival of European settlers, the area around present-day Austin was inhabited by a mixture of Tonkawa, Comanche, and Lipan Apache Indians, who fished and hunted along the creeks, including present-day Barton Springs. The first documented permanent settlement of current day Austin occurred in 1835. Anglo American settlers began arriving in the area, when Texas was still part of Mexico. They founded the village of Waterloo in 1837, along the banks of the Colorado River. According to local folk tales, Stephen F. Austin, the "father of Texas", negotiated a peace treaty with the local Indians at the site of the present day Treaty Oak after several settlers were killed in raids. According to local legend, Austin also negotiated a boundary treaty with the Indians that laid out the town's limits.

Replubic of Texas

Waterloo was chosen to become the capital of the new Republic of Texas in 1839 and was purchased by The Republic for that purpose. Mirabeau B. Lamar renamed the city in honor of Stephen F. Austin. The city's original name is honored by local businesses such as Waterloo Ice House and Waterloo Records. In 1842, Austin almost lost its status as capital city during the Texas Archive War. President Sam Houston had tried to relocate the seat of government from Austin to Houston, and then to Washington-on-the-Brazos. In the dead of night on December 29, 1842, a group of men was sent to take the archives of Texas from Austin to Washington-on-the-Brazos. Angelina Eberly fired a cannon at the men; however they escaped but, only to be caught by another group of men who returned the archives back to Austin.

1845 to 1899

After Texas was admitted to the Union in 1845, two unsuccessful statewide elections were held that attempted to move the capital elsewhere.From 1861 to 1865, Texas was part of the Confederacy.St. Edward's University,then St. Edward's Academy was founded in 1878 by Rev. Edward Sorin, Superior General of the Congregation of Holy Cross, on South Austin farm land.

1845 to 1899

In September 1881, the city schools admitted their first public school classes. That same year, Tillotson Collegiate and Normal Institute, the predecesser of Huston-Tillotson University, opened to the public.In 1882 construction began on The University of Texas at Austin campus with the placement of the cornerstone of the Main Building. The University formally opened in 1883.

1845 to 1899

The Texas State Capitol was completed in 1888 on the site specified in the 1839 plan. At the time it was bi the "seventh largest building in the world."In 1891, the neighborhood of Hyde Park was developed north of the The University of Texas as a streetcar suburb.In 1893, the Great Granite Dam on the Colorado River was constructed, stabilizing the river's flow and providing hydroelectric power.

1900 to 1969

In 1900, a great storm washed away the dam and sent a wall of water into downtown Austin, levelling homes and killing dozens. Two more failed attempts would be made to rebuild the dam until Tom Miller Dam was completed slightly up river in the 1940s. In 1910, the city opened the concrete Congress Avenue Bridge across the Colorado River, fostering development along South Congress Avenue. The Littlefield Building at 6th and Congress downtown also opened this same year. In the 1930s, the Lower Colorado River Authority replaced the Great Granite Dam by building a series



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