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World Wars

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I. Introduction

A. Thesis: Based on historical information from the text in, "Nation of Nations" this paper will prove that America could not have avoided involvement in past wars.

B. Argument Points

1. World War I

2. World War II

3. Vietnam

II. World War I

A. Obligations to allies

B. German submarine warfare

III. World War II

A. Battle communism

B. Bombing of Pearl Harbor

IV. Vietnam

A. Truman Doctrine

B. To prevent Eisenhower's "Domino Theory"

V. Conclusion

A. Prevent spread of communist rule

B. Direct attacks on American land or the prevention there of

After reviewing information from the text, "Nation of Nations" I believe that America could not have avoided involvement and conflict in past wars. If America chose not to take part in the conflicts and allow communism and other countries to dominate, America most likely would not be the strong powerful nation it is today. Although, I understand why America involves itself in other countries' conflicts, I personally believe that America's involvement in foreign wars is and has always been for an alternative motive. I feel that the true motive is to somehow benefit America and to make it the strongest nation in the world both economically as well as politically.

Specific involvement in World War I was due to our obligation to our Allies, such as France, and because of the Germans campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare. Once again during World War II America came to the aid of our Allies, but also felt it was necessary to engage in war to battle communism and as retaliation for the bombing of Pearl Harbor. I believe the Truman Doctrine and Eisenhower's "Domino Theory" pushed America into the Vietnam War to continue the fight against communism.

For a decade before the war broke out in Europe in 1914 the country dealt with increasing strains due to increased population and discontent with industrial society, which was on the up rise. Matters were worse in Europe than other countries due to the greater division ethnically and culturally. Once war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia-Russia broke out over Serbia, other countries quickly took sides and joined. Germany joined Austria-Hungary followed suit by Bulgaria and Turkey to form the "Central Powers" (Davidson J., Gienapp W., Heyrman C., Lytle M., Stoff M., 2001 p. 747).

Britain, Japan, Romania, and Italy joined France and Russia as the "Allies." America, led by President Woodrow Wilson, chose to maintain neutrality. However, true impartiality was however impossible due to the investments and economic ties to Britain and France.

America did stay out of the actual fighting and President Wilson did maintain a neutral state until Germany began submarine warfare on all military and nonmilitary vessels killing many innocent lives including Americans. In 1916 after yet another German U-boat torpedoed a French ferry, Wilson ordered Germany to stop sinking nonmilitary vessels or America would go to war. Germany subsequently agreed with Wilson's terms, but on January 31, 1917, Germany once again announced unrestricted submarine warfare would resume the next day (Davidson, 2001 p. 731). It was at that point, America realized war was imminent. In March, German U-boats torpedoed an American vessel and the morale in the Allied ranks was crumbling. In April 6, the war resolution passed in congress and due to America's cultural, economic, and historical ties to its Allies, along with German submarine warfare campaign, we were now in the war (Davidson, 2001 p. 752).

America could not ignore the fact that Germany was blatantly instigating our country and taking innocent American lives. If America chose to do noting and continued allow Germany to do as they pleased, America as well as President Wilson would appear to be a weak scared nation. America could not allow itself to be dictated by heathens and in-moralistic beings. This would have only encouraged Germany and other nations to attack America instead of view it as the strong, powerful nation it is.

Due to America's economic ties with the Allies, it was also important to ensure a victory for France and Britain to solidify America's economic stability and growth.

Just as we went to war in World War I to assist our Allies, we again found ourselves in battle once again along with Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and China during World War II. The battle against communism and the surprise bombing of Pearl Harbor by Japan is what jumpstarted America to join its Allies against Japan, Germany, and Italy.

After World War I, much of Europe was still dissatisfied with the peace terms adopted at Versailles. The "Central Powers" wanted to achieve unilaterally what the "Allies" had denied them (Davidson, 2001 p. 854). Rivalry among fascists, communists, and other political factions led to frequent instability and violence as well. Once again when full fledged war broke out in 1939, America pledged isolationism and impartiality. Not until Germany, under control of Adolph Hitler, had taken over much of European territory including France, and the shocking non aggression pact between Russia and Germany, did America take action to assist its Allies. Now, with Hitler's consolidated hold on Europe only Britain stood between him and the United States.

To reinforce America's national defenses, President Roosevelt adopted policies designed to help Britain help themselves. America supplied Britain with old destroyers in return for leases on British bases in the Western Hemisphere. Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act in 1941 that leased, lended, or disposed of arms and supplies to countries whose defense was vital to the United States (Davidson, 2001 p.860).

By the summer of 1941 the United States surged even closer to war when American destroyers were escorting British ships, later stalking German U-boats, and reporting their locations to British commanders. Confrontation seemed inevitable, especially



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