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What Is Change? Organizational Environment

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Change is an alteration of an organization's environment, structure, technology, or people If it weren't for change, the manager's job would be easy. Planning would be simplified, tomorrow would be no different from today. The issue of organization design would be solved because the environment would be free from uncertainty and there would be no need to adapt. Similarly decision making would be dramatically simplified because the outcome of each alternative could be predicted with near pinpoint accuracy. It would indeed, simplify the manager's job, for example, competitors did not introduce new products or services, if customers didn't make new demands, if government regulations were never modified, if technology never advanced, or if employees' needs always remained the same.

However, change is an organizational reality. Handling change is an integral part of every manager's job. But what can a manager change? The options essentially fall into one of three categories: altering structure, technology, or people.

Categories of Change:

Structure: Authority relationships, Coordinating mechanisms, Job redesign, Spans of control


Technology: Work processes Work methods Equipments


People: Attitudes Expectations Perceptions Behavior.

Forces of change:

We will point out both external and internal forces constrain managers. These same forces also bring about the need for change. Let's briefly review these factors.

What External Forces create a need to change?

The external forces that create the need for change come from various sources. In recent years, the marketplace has affected firms such as Indian Airlines and BSNL by introducing new competition. Indian airlines for example, is facing competition not only from other comparable carries like Jet Airways and Kingfishers, but also from low cost airlines like Air Deccan and SpiceJet. BSNL is experiencing competition from private service providers like Airtel, as well as mobile service providers such as Vodaphone, Idea, and Reliance Infocom. Government laws and regulations are also an impetus for change. For example, with the passage of the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act in 1956, organizations in India have had to make changes in their recruitment and admission policies, and provide suitable working environments with health and safety measures suitable for employees with disabilities.

Technology also creates the need for change. In the twenty first Century the Internet and e-commerce



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