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Uoft Music 204

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Lecture 1

Bach Werk-Verzeichnis (BWV)

  • Catalogue number/Index to Bach’s works


  • Stringed keyboard instrument


  • Means variations or Greek style suite


  • In Greek, it means “same-sounding”
  • Melodies move in step with one another


  • Describes counterpoint
  • Combination of simultaneously sounding musical lines

Binary form

  • A kind of structure where two sections of music are repeated one after the other
  • AABB

Spinning out melody

Walking bass

  • A type of bass line which moves continuously and with purposeful regularity, steadily
  • With contrasting, usually longer note values to those in the upper parts


  • Repeat of music in a different pitch

Lecture 2

Allemande (duple metre)

  • Continuous motion

Corrente (triple metre)

  • Motion in running scales

Sarabande (triple metre)

  • Stately, accent on the second beat

Minuets I and II (triple metre)

  • Elegant

Gigue (duple metre, triple rhythms)

  • Lively, imitative

Lecture 3


  • interplay between a small group of solo and a large group ripieno, creating instrumental dialogue
  • harpsichord player for the basso continuo
  • FSF
  • Ritornello: constantly returns, begins in tonic key, might modulate but eventually returns to home key
  • Episodes: by solo instruments, contrasting material to ritornello
  • solo concerto: full orchestra with a single soloist

concerto grosso

  • full orchestra and small group of soloist


  • the group of soloist in a concerto grosso, playing the solo section


  • the group of orchestral players in a concerto grosso, playing the tutti section


  • the returning/repeat section, played by tutti


  • sections that alternate with ritornello, played by soloists


  • a contrapuntal composition
  • after exposition of the subject, episodes (connective passages) keep spinning out
  • often also contains a counter-subject
  • multiple parts

fugal exposition

  • the first voice that enters accompanied bringing in the principal theme, i.e. the subject, of the fugue, then joined by other voices

basso continuo

  • the bass line of baroque music which contains figured bass
  • upper melody is improvised from the figured basses

“il prete rosso”

  • “the red haired priest”, refers to Antonio Vivaldi

Ospedale della Pietà

  • A residential school for orphaned girls and young women in Venice, where Vivaldi was appointed director of music
  • Combines basic education with religious training and placed a strong emphasis on music

French overture style (ouverture)

  • Solemn introduction to a ballet, opera, or oratorio
  • Orchestral music designed to precede a full-length dramatic work
  • May or may not come to a full close before the drama begins

1) Slow and grand

2) Dotted rhythms ** important- comes out like a jagged pattern

3) Flourishes

Lecture 4


  • The congregational hymn of the German Protestant church service
  • Both text and melody


  • A work for one or more voices with instrumental accompaniment
  • Consists of succession of contrasting sections, i.e. arias and recitative

cantus firmus texture

  • Pre-existing melody as the basis of new polyphonic composition


  • Repetition of melodic contour of one part by another, often at a different pitch

Recitative – secco (dry) or accompagnato (accompanied)

  • Vocal music mimicking dramatic speech, free in rhythm (according to changing meanings of the text)
  • A feature of cantatas
  • Used to carry the plot forward
  • Dry recitative/recitativo secco: only accompanied by bass line
  • Accompanied recitative/recitativo accompagnato: accompanied by orchestra (basso continuo), declamatory (expressing feelings and opinions)


  • Lyrical solo voice piece with or without instrumental accompaniment
  • During aria, the movements of opera stop
  • Time to explore the emotion created by the story
  • Usually accompanied by full orchestra
  • Ternary form

major mode

minor mode

Cantional style

  • Collection of hymn or chorales

Bar form

  • AAB form

Lecture 5


  • change of key


  • music written out in full instead of improvised from figured bass


  • passage near the end of a concerto movement or aria
  • improvised or written out
  • decorated cadence

tonic, dominant

motive (motif?)

  • short musical idea, subdivision of a theme or phrase

Concerto: a musical composition for a solo instrument or solo instruments with an accompanying orchestra

Concerto Grosso: a composition that involves an orchestra that embodies the concept of contrasting musical bodies whereby the soloist(s) is/are highlighted and the orchestra is contextual. The soloists are one group (concertino) and the orchestra another (ripieno).



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