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Unification Of Ancient Egyt

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Who was the first king to unite Upper and Lower Egypt?

The ancient Egyptian civilisation existed a very long time ago. It started around 3500 BC and probably ended at about 30 BC when the Romans invaded. Although the ancient Egypt was formed in c. 3500 BC, the first unification of both Lower and Upper Egypt occurred around c. 3050. However, historians are unable to determine the first king who united Egypt. There are many theories but after all, they are only theories, which can not be proven.

King Scorpion is candidate number one. He existed approximately 3100 BC. There are not many evidence to prove his identity. The only evidence that supported him was the fragments of a limestone mace-head, which were found in Hierakonpolis. It was found by archaeologists Quibell and Green during their expedition of 1897 Ð'- 1898.

The Scorpion mace head had illustrations done on it. On the very top, there are a series of nomes and also lapwings. In the middle-right, there is a person who was drawn larger than anything else. On the lower and bottom part of the mace head, a river can be seen and some small figures engaged in their own activities. The name Scorpion was given as it had a symbol resembling a scorpion.

The mace head itself was symbol of power. The series of illustration of the top of the mace head represents the people of Egypt. In the middle, the large figure symbolised a rather important character as he wore a headdress. The headdress which this person is wearing maybe recognized as White Crown of Egypt. This crown showed that this particular figure may have been a king. The river resembled the Niles. This section of the mace head seems to be referring to the importance of these certain activities which the small figures are completing.

Evidences to prove that Scorpion was the first king to united Egypt are very little. The crown may have resembled a king but the figure was only wearing a White Crown. This mace head could have uncovered the mystery of the unification but the mace head it self was heavily eroded and damaged. This evidence was the oldest evidence found for the creation of a kingship in Old Kingdom but however, could not provide us with enough evidences to suggest that Scorpion may have been the first king.

King Narmer is candidate number two. He existed around the same time as Scorpion and the evidence that proved his existence was found at the same place by the same person, archaeologist Quibell. Narmer Palette was carved from green slate. It is the earliest complete historical record from Ancient Egypt.

The Palette is used for cosmetic uses. It has decoration on both sides. Both sides had cow-head on the top corners and in between the cow-heads, there is a serekh. Going downwards from Side A, towards the right, an image clearly showing decapitated victims can be seen. The left hand side are dominated by a large figure, which is clearly bigger than all others. The figure is wearing a headdress which is very eye-catching and is holding an object in his hand. In the middle of Side A, there are two mythological creatures entangled together, each with a small figure holding on to a rope. Down the bottom, a bull came be seen and it seems to be trampling on a figure which is lying on the ground. The horns of the bull are pointed towards a encampment.

The cow-heads represented the Egyptian mother goddess in her disguise. The serekh gave the name of the person who was portrayed, Narmer. The decapitated



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