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The Wars Of Independence In Latin America

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The Wars of Independence in Latin America

Ð'* Rebellions between 1804-1824

Ð'* Colonial govt. ended in S. America

Ð'* Haiti revolt

o led by Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines

o Merchant, landowner, professional class participated (Creole elite)

o Natives and blacks didn't as much

Ð'* Discontentment of Creoles

o Slave revolts in Andes, scared Creoles

o Angry w/Spanish govt.

 Taxes too high

 Trade limits

Ð'* Peninsulares-whites born in Spain

o Got the best positions

o Hated by most

Ð'* Creoles dividing Spain

o Afraid France controlled Spain too much, to get Latin American wealth

o Decided to divide Latin America into states

o Ended peninsulares' privileges

o Spain broke away, under Fernando VII

o Creoles had more privileges

Ð'* Rio de la Plata (modern Argentina)

o Centered around Buenos Aires

o 1810-Spanish authority taken away, including Paraguay & Uruguay

o Armies defeated

Ð'* San Martin

o Leading general of these forces

o Lead Andes mountain march

o 1817- occupied Santiago in Chile

o "Protector of Peru"

Ð'* Simon Bolivar

o 1810-liberations in Caracas, Venezuela

o Republican govt. & independence favored

o 1811-1814 Civil War in Venezuela

 Royalists vs. slaves and llaneros (Venezuelan cowboys)

 Exiled to Columbia then Jamaica

o 1816 invasion w/Haiti of Venezuela

o 1821 captured Caracas, became president

o 1822 joined San Martin to liberate Quito

 San Martin=monarchism, Bolivar=republicanism

 San Martin went into exile in Europe

o Dec. 9, 1824 Battle of Ayacucho

 Spanish royalists are defeated

Ð'* Independence in New Spain

o Outcome of Latin American

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