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Imperialism In Latin America

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Wars for Independence

most gained independence in early 19th century

leaders' political culture shaped by Enlightenment

but, colonial heritage did not include participatory govt.

class and regional interests divided nations

wealth was unevenly distributed

rise of industrial capitalism placed L A in a dependent economic position

Old and New Problems

shared Enlightenment political and economic ideals

less agreement about role of Catholic Church as exclusive state religion

some leaders had egalitarian beliefs

slavery abolished in former Spanish colonies by 1854

better treatment of Indians and Mestizos blocked by elite's fears of losing tax revenue and control

property and literacy qualifications limited voting

women remained subordinate to men

mass of the people were outside of the political process

Caudillos, Politics, and the Church

armies loyal to their leaders led to rise of caudillos, men who controlled local areas

caudillos intervened in national politics to make and unmake govts

usually disregarded representative forms and rule of law

differences about forms of republican govt

centralists vs. federalists

liberals stressed individual rights, opposed corporate structure of colonial society, and favored federalist govt

conservatives favored centralized state and wished to maintain a society where corporate groups ruled social action

role of Church

liberals-limit its civil role

conservatives-keep its civil role

political parties led by landowners and urban middle class argued about liberal or conservative ideas, but shared basic class loyalties

rest of population not concerned with political ideologies

result was enduring political instability, with rapid turnovers of rulers and constitutions

only Chile and Brazil had general stability

alliance of Church, landowners, army and peasantry emerged to oppose change in mid 19th century

latter 19th century the liberals returned to power

Economies and World Markets, 1820-1870

Britain and U S supported



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