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The Study of Social Consequence of Urbanization in Male’

Essay by   •  October 26, 2016  •  Case Study  •  2,444 Words (10 Pages)  •  785 Views

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A1- Title (word limit: 50 words) / (5 marks)

The study of social consequence of urbanization in Male’

A2- Introduction / Back ground information (word limit: 150 words) / (5 marks)

Thirty years ago, 38% of the world’s population lived in cities. However, migration to cities has increased in the past two decades. In 2008, more than 50% of the world’s population (3.3 billion people) resided in cities and it is projected that by 2030, 70% (almost 5 billion people), will live in urban areas.

The   problems   of   spatial   development   are   manifested   in   the   relative depopulation of already small populations on some islands and over urbanization of the capital Male’. In  Maldives  as  in  other  small  island  developing  states, internal  migration  and  growth  of  a  large  urban  centre  (Male’)  can  be  attributed  to spatial inequality due to urban bias in the availability of economic opportunities and provision  of  services  and  income  disparities  between  Male’  and  other  atolls.  While there is some amount of inter-atoll migration, Male’ is the main destination for both temporary and permanent migration in the Maldives. Historically Male’ has been the centre of trade and administration.


A3- Problem identification (word limit: 100 words) / (5 marks)

Rural to urban migration enhances the process of urbanization and is inevitably linked to the process of economic development. The flow of people from Island to Male’ occurs largely for economic reasons. There are other reasons, such as the better educational or health services available in Male’, social and economic disparities and lack of job opportunities in Islands have resulted in increased Island to Male’ migration in the country. Some of the problems identification of this proposal is as follows:

  • Housing
  • Youth violence
  • Over crowding
  • Youth and drug abuse

A4- Problem justification (word limit: 300 words) / (10 marks)


One of the most pressing social issues of rapid urbanization is housing congestion and the lack of housing for the growing population. The island geography of Male’ limits the available land for housing.  There are also a number of competing demands on land as a result of the economic importance of Male’. Large households combined with relatively small size of houses create very unhealthy living conditions, with people often sleeping in shifts. It is common to find whole families living in single rooms, which doubles as kitchen and living room. Such living conditions place great strain on families, sometimes leading to family break up. Official statistics reveal that 1 in every 2.3 marriages ended in divorce in 2006. While there may be a number of reasons for such a high divorce rate, it is quite possible that living conditions can have an impact on family relations in Male’.

Youth violence

Youth violence is the huge problem for environment of the Male’. The Maldives, like other developing countries has a relatively large proportion of people in the adolescent and youth age group. Nearly 75 percent of Male’s population is under 35 years, with 31 percent of the population in the age group 15-24 years. It is also a telling fact that over 60 percent of Male’s youth population consists of migrants. The congested living conditions in many households mean that young people spend most of their time outside the house resulting in group affiliations and gang violence. Since 2005, Male’ has seen a rise in gang related fighting which has claimed lives. This has resulted in a significant rise in drug abuse and violent crimes in Male’, especially among adolescents and youth.

Over crowding

Overcrowding does not only affect people living in overcrowded houses. It affects everyone living in Male’. This is a serious issue in the capital city of the Maldives. Between 2000 and 2006 the population density of Male’ increased by 40 per cent, as people have sought employment and services available in the capital as well as greater security following the 2004 tsunami. Overcrowding has become a serious issue, on average, five or six people would share a single room in the city’s apartments and houses. This can have significant consequences for people’s health, privacy and safety. Migrant in Male’, face even greater pressures. As many as 30 men have been share apartments measuring 3m x 3m, which lack running water or sanitation. The men sleep in ‘shifts’ because they cannot all fit into the room at the same time. Such overcrowding is among the “key causes of rising social problems such as gang warfare and drug abuse.” It has also been driven by the skyrocketing cost of accommodation, with rents roughly doubling between 2005 and 2007 and many survey participants paying 85 per cent of their income on rent and utilities.

Youth and drug abuse

This is the biggest and uncontrolled problem in Male’. Over the last years, growing drug use has been of increasing concern to the society in Maldives. It is mainly the young boys and girls who are engaging in drug use for a variety of reasons and too many young Maldivians have already died from drug use. Drug use poses serious challenges as it affects foremost the health and life of the drug user, the social well-being of the family and community as well as the economy of the society.


A5- Research problem (word limit: 500 words) / (15 marks)

How has urban transformation impacted livelihood in Male’?

A6- Research objectives (word limit: 500 words) / (15 marks)

The purpose of the research was to identify how the urban transformation impacted livelihood in Male’. The primary objective of the survey was to explore Male’s urban transformation. The secondary objective includes; understanding the ways in which urbanization has impacted livelihoods, especially in relation to housing, youth violence, overcrowding and youth and drug abuse in Male’.

A7- Literature review (word limit: 500 words) / (15 marks)

The world´s population is rapidly urbanizing. The signs are inescapable. In the early 1800s, roughly three per cent of the world’s population lived in cities. Today the proportion is well over half, and in the next fifty years will increase to two thirds. In 2011 there were 480 cities with populations exceeding one million as compared to just 80 in 1950. More than three billion people currently reside in urban centers and this figure is expected to rise to five billion by 2050. Perhaps most striking is the fact that virtually all population growth in the coming decades will occur in low- and middle-income settings. Global population growth is overwhelmingly concentrated in marginal urban and surrounding periphery contexts, especially slums.



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