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The Process Of Fermentation Through Different Kinds Of Sugars

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THE PROCESS OF FERMENTATION THROUGH DIFFERENT KINDS OF SUGARS

In order to produce ethyl alcohol fermentation, we had to determine what sugars used, such as glucose (a single sugar) sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (milk sugar) will react with yeast to produce ethyl alcohol fermentation. My hypothesis is that the sugar lactose would produce the highest amount of bubbles and ferment.

INTRODUCTION:

The significance of fermentation is a lengthy process that has been practiced by humankind for thousands of years. Through fermentation humankind has been able to produce such products as bread, cheese, yogurt, soy sauce, sauerkraut and beer. In order for fermentation to be successful, it must breakdown sugar to obtain energy. This energy is present through the metabolic pathways of organisms. The organism in this case is yeast, and it acts like an enzyme, and it influences chemical reactions.

The energy, called ATP, is used to do cellular work such as growth, transport and movement. One example, is the 6-carbon sugar glucose, which must be broken down into 3-carbon pyruvic acid molecules, this path is called glycolysis, which means, "sugar splitting." In glycolysis no oxygen is present. After the sugar splits, the carbons are released as carbon dioxide, and more energy is generated. Some reactions require energy, and some reactions release energy. In fermentation, there is a lack of oxygen that is added to the system, so it is Anaerobic, meaning no oxygen is present, and ATP is present.

The energy released from the "sugar splitting," releases high energy electrons that are accepted by electron "carries," such as NAD, after accepting the electrons, it becomes NAD+. NAD+ can carry electrons and protons between the reactions in a metabolic pathway, possible through ATP. In alcoholic fermentation, once the enzyme and NAD+ are used up then fermentation is done.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In this experiment we used 8 small test tubes, four of the test tubes contained the enzyme yeast were in a 37 degree bathwater. The water bath was for heat and the pH was controlled. Each individual had two test tubes; one containing 2ml of yeast and the other was empty. I then added 2ml of the sugar lactose to the test tube containing the yeast. And then added 2ml of distilled water to the empty test tube. A stopper with a j-tube is then inserted to the top of the test tube containing the yeast, and the long end of the j-tube is placed inside the test tube containing the waster. The test tube is then labeled with the name of the sugar and placed back in the bath water with the rest of my groups test tubes.

By timing the intervals using the wall on the clock, over the next 30 minutes I would observe my test tube to determine if bubbles were in fact present. If so, then carbon dioxide has been released.

RESULTS:

10 minutes-

Glucose= 0,0,0,0,0,0

Sucrose=0,0,0,0,0,0

Lactose=0,0,0,0,0,0

Water=0,0,0,0,0

15 minutes-

Glucose= 0,7,0,0,0

Sucrose=0,0,0,0,0

Lactose=0,0,0,0,0

Water=0,2,0,0,0

20

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