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School Violence

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Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim are some of the founding fathers in the Sociological discipline. Each developing the discipline in their respective area, contributed to the social science course becoming what it is today. Durkheim the man who coined the term social facts and some sociological theories on functionalism, division of labour in society, education and social solidarity, methodology, positivism and sociology, primitive classification, religion and suicide. Durkhiem believe that social facts should be considered as things in the same way as the objects and events of the natural world.

Karl Marx is the person responsible forthe conflict perspective, also had some sociological theories on alienated labour, culture, labour theory and commodities, the lower strata, the middle class, power and the state, religion, ruling ideas, social stratification, unemployment, women, the working class. In his theories you will notice factors that will explain what he was trying to accomplish, which later manifested itself in the Communism of Russia.



Mr. Emile David Durkheim, the founder of the modern field of sociology, was born in Epinal, France on April 15, 1858. The Annee Sociologique was the first journal committed to social science and was created by Mr. Durkheim.

He came for a long history of pious French Jews, his father and grandfather was Rabbis. Durkheim himself was also studying to become a Rabbi, but at the age of thirteen after his Jewish confirmation he was influenced by a female Catholic teacher to study Catholicism. After some time he was no longer involved in any religion and became a nonbeliever.

A brilliant student he was at the College d'Epinal, he was awarded various honours and prizes. Having such academic potential, he was transferred to one of France's great high schools, the Lycee Louis-le-Grand in Paris. After he wanted to attend the prestigious Ecole Normale Superierure, the intellectual training ground for best of France. To attend he had to undergo an admission examination which Durkheim failed twice, but, in 1879 on his third try he was finally admitted.

His classmates were some of the most brilliant of the nineteenth century, such as Jean Jaures and Henri Bergson who became important figures in France's intellectual life. Fustel de Coulanges a perfectionist with a social scientific view, studied with Durkheim in Ecole Normale Superierure. Durkheim's interested in a scientific approach to society manifested when he read Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer.

While attending Ecole Normale Superierure he seems to loose interest and became unhappy there. He rebelled against the course study, which did not teach what he wanted to learn which are modern philosophical doctrines or the recent findings of the science. Later he traveled to Germany where he studied Sociology of a year and to Bordeaux in 1887, where France's first teacher's center was established. There he taught pedagogy and social science, and from this position, he reformed the French school system and introduced social science to the curriculum.

In the 1890's a period where his creativity shined when he published The Division of Labour in Society in 1893. He also published two other pieces of literature, Rules of the Sociological Method in 1895 that stated what is sociology and in 1897 he published Suicide.

In World War 1 he actively supported his country and was reluctant in giving into simplistic nationalist passion (in combination with the fact that he was a Jew) made his a target for the ascendant French right. They accused him of being disloyal and favoring the German enemies.

In 1816 Andre, Durkheim's only son was killed on the Bulgarian front, which became a mental block Durkheim never was able to recover. He was emotionally overwhelmed and worn-out; he collapsed and died of a stroke on November 15, 1817.



He believes that individuals have little or no control over their actions and the society mould individuals. Passed on to individuals are beliefs and morals which go through generations and are shared by the individuals in society.

Society possesses certain functional prerequisites, these are necessary in order for social order. This is important for human nature, because he believes in human nature there are two sides, the selfish and the moral value side. In the selfish side individuals are driven to look after their own interest and this makes trouble for them to integrate in society. The side of moral value is where individuals are interested in others, other than themselves.

Consensus is when individuals of society put their differences away and agree on important moral issues to maintain social order in society. This show what is acceptable and right in society and what is not; this is done in order for individuals to bound together and form an integrated unit. Collective consensus orders individuals to act in terms of social requirements; this is a factor outside the individual and is necessary for it to be forced upon the individual. (Haralambos and Holborn 2004 6th ed. Pg.938)


Durkheim's believed of religion the world is divided into two categories by society: the sacred and the profane. Religion is a system that containing beliefs and practices related to sacred things. These animals, persons or things that symbolize something scared are believed to have important significance.

Collective conscience is reinforced through religion; it provides members of society with power to direct human action. The basis of social life that is formed by values and moral beliefs is strengthened by the worship of society. Religion gives the required authority to society's moralities through collective worship, this involves members coming together to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. This allows society to communicate, express and understand moral bonds which bring them together. Durkheim stated "religious worship is really the worship of the social group or society." (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004. pg406)





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