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Rise Of Nazis

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o Anti-Semitism which grew during that period of depression and from the racial theories of the time

o Radical right-wing politics (i.e.: Pan-German League) in favor of authoritarianism.

From its founding to the putsch of 1923:

o Founded during the chaotic period immediately after WWI. Bavaria was then under the control of a right wing Gov. which sheltered extremists (including the Nazis)

o Formed Jan. 9th 1919 under the name German Workers Party (DAP), Hitler joined as propaganda chief in Sept.

o Aug. 1921: Hitler became leader and introduced: the notion of the leader / a more centralized system w/ all branches subject to the authority of the original branch in Munich.

o June 1922: the now renamed National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) is banned in all states except Bavaria.

The Munich or �Beer Hall’ Putsch:

o End 1922: Germany defaulted on reparation payments

o Jan. 1923: Invasion of the Ruhr

o Aug. 1923: Streseman became chancellor (& called for passive resistance and began negotiating w/ the French) Ð"ÑŸ Hitler saw this chancellorship as the beg. of a communist takeover…he decided to lead a putsch.

o Hitler decided to convince leading members of the Bavarian Gov. to help him on his �March on Berlin’ he seized them, they gave their consent but once released w/drew their aid. On Nov. 9th 1923 the Nazis marched on Gov. buildings and were dispersed by gunfire and had their leaders arrested.

o Hitler went for 5 years in prison, but now he was a nationally known figure.

The Creation of a Nationwide Party Organization (1923-1928)

Background to this period:

o period of recovery / the Weimar Republic seemed to have survived attempts against it and have gained support

o 1924: the Ruhr was reintegrated into the German economy / the Dawes Plan (rescheduled payments and made loans)

o 1925: Locarno Treaties вЂ" Germany accepted the frontiers of 1919

o 1926: Germany joined the League of Nations

o 1928: Kellog-Briand Pact

These favored improved international relationships and recovery. The appeal of extremists (i.e.: declined during this period).

Nazi Party Measures:

o Refounding of the Party, Feb. 1925: Hitler refounded the party (which had been banned) to participate in the political processes of the Weimar Republic. Hitler planned to use the democratic process to gain power, and then destroy it.

o Consolidation of the �Fuhrerprinzip’: Dispute (over participation in elections / the Party Programme) was ended when Hitler imposed his views, and by 1926 his control of the party had been greatly strengthened.

o Creation of a Party cadre: the country was divided into Party regions w/ a leader for each region.

The Role of the S.A.: Hitler restricted its activities to propaganda and bodyguard duties since he did not wish to antagonize middle class & wealthy supporters.

Nazism Becomes a Mass Movement 1928-33

The insecure foundations of economic prosperity:

o US short term loans were invested on long term projects

o Middle classes being �squeezed’ by gains made by: the leading industrialists who were forming into large thrusts / the workers, whose unions had pressured for higher wages, etc…

o World wide agricultural depression by late 1927

The effects of the may 1928 election:

Gain for left wing parties, decline of the right. The right and center parties concluded that coalition Gov. had weakened them. There was danger that the parliamentary system would break down b/c coalition Gov. would not be possible.

The Economic Depression 1929 onwards:

o Had to face w/drawal of US short term loans

o The Young Commission and the Great Depression served as foci for right wing attacks against the Versailles settlement.

o March 1930: collapse of Gov. coalition / appointment of Bruning (Catholic Center Pary) He tries to force unpopular budget measures.

o Sep. 1930: Election in which Nazis become the second largest party in the Reichstag.


o Modern techniques (press campaigns, whirlwind campaigns by air, film shows, etc.)

o Forming special propaganda sections for individual interest groups.

o Emphasis on appeal to youth.

o Nationalism as a uniting force.

The Struggle for Power 1930-33


o Reluctance of conservative right wing parties to ally w/ the Nazis. They wanted: Nazi officials only in minor cabinet posts / Nazis to drop many of their demands and restraining their followers.(becoming more �civilized’)

o Attitude of Pres. Hindenburg

o Divisions w/in the party. Hitler did not want to alienate the army & the wealthy industrialists. However, opposition w/in the party felt this would betray the revolutionary nature of the party (such feelings were strongest in the S.A.)

The Major developments of this period:

o See notes

o Jan. 1933: Hindenburg appointed Hitler Chancellor b/c:



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