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Up to now, the african refugee problem can not be solved yet. The end of the Cold War and the resolution of some of its associated conflicts in Africa brought some optimism in the early 1990s that fewer people would be uprooted, But by the middle of the decade those hopes had been dashed, with the genocide in Rwanda and a series of brutal internal conflicts in East, Central and West Africa. The two main conflicts in West Africa in Liberia and Sierra Leone drove millions of people from their homes. By the end of the decade, more than a third of the continent's refugees and displaced people were in West Africa. In many instances, these refugees and displaced persons are being hosted by small and already impoverished countries such as Guinea which are ill-equipped to handle these crises. In addition to political and social problems, Africa also must contend with the AIDS pandemic. The nature and scope of humanitarian emergencies generated by conflict in Africa continue to exceed the international community's will and capacity to respond. These crises increasingly occur where beleaguered state governments have lost control over substantial parts of their territories, and no longer have a monopoly over force and the means of mass violence. The control of armed force often devolves into the hands of a variety of subnational groupings, and the civilian population become the principal target of violence. In such a case, the control, division, relocation and even extermination of civilians become the primary war aims of opposing forces. armed conflicts in Africa occurred

in; Angola, Somalia, Rwanda, Zaпre and Liberia in 1990s.



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