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Quality Management

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Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1

LIST OF FIGURES 2

1. INTRODUCTION 3

2. WHAT IS QUALITY MANAGEMENT 3

2.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF QUALITY 4

2.2. DEFINING QUALITY 4

3. WHY FOCUS ON QUALITY 5

4. APPROACHES TO IMPROVING QUALITY 5

4.1. ASSESSING IMPROVEMENT METHODS 5

4.2. BENCHMARKING 6

4.3. QUALITY CIRCLES 7

4.4. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC) 8

4.5. JUST -IN-TIME (JTI) 9

5. QUALITY STANDARDS AND EXCELLENCE 10

6. CONCLUSION 10

REFERENCES 11

BIBLIOGRAPHY 12

List of Figures

Figure 1: History of Quality 4

Figure 2: Definitions of Quality 4

Figure 3: Types of Benchmarking 6

Figure 4: Advantages and Disadvantages of Benchmarking 6

Figure 5: Benchmarking Case Study - Rank Xerox 7

Figure 6: Use of Quality Circles in Companies 8

Figure 7: Explanation of a Control Chart 9

Figure 8: Toyota and Just-In-Time 10

In a world where technology is rapidly increasing, the globalisation of markets, availability of goods and services from the Internet and the great demand from consumers for a better service or product have placed organisations in a position where they need to be at an advantage competitively against their competitors.

As a result, Quality Management has gained significant prominence as organisations look within their internal operations to identify and implement systems to maximise their business processes with an interest in sustaining consumer satisfaction.

2. What is Quality Management

Theorists have noted that Quality Management is the process of ensuring that things are done right the first time, without any errors. Hannagan, (2002, p.184) stated that Quality Management is "an intensive, long-term effort to transform all parts of the organization in order to produce the best product and service possible to meet customer needs". With this in mind, restructuring of organizations must be implemented. This can be achieved with Total Quality Management programme/s (TQM), otherwise called Total Quality Control or Total Quality Improvement.

TQM encompasses the entire organization and is implemented from the top management level, which instils the shift. This requires change - the redesign of the organizational structure, culture, and work habits. This is done through participative management, incorporating internal customers in the process of decision making and planning.

2.1 Brief History of Quality

Figure 1: History of Quality

The movement of quality began in the early fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. However, notable development took place during the 1920s with the work of Dr. Walter A. Shewhart who established the Statistical Process Control Chart.

Further development was achieved through the work of Dr. Edwards Deming, who introduced quality methods to Japan after World War II. Japan became efficient in quality processes from the input of known quality boffins. As a result of Japan's success in the field, other parts of the world followed suit, leading to the quality revolution of the 1980s.

Other known Quality Management gurus are Dr. Joseph Juran (publisher of the "Quality Control Handbook"), Dr. Armand Feigenbaum (known for the "Total Quality Control" concept), Dr. Karou Ishikawa, Dr. Genichi Taguchi and Mr. Phillip Crosby.

2.2. Defining Quality

Tim Hannagan (2002) defines quality as "continually meeting agreed customer needs' or 'what it takes to satisfy the customer', or simply 'fitness for purpose". The Oxford Dictionary defines quality as "a degree or level of excellence".

Figure 2: Definitions of Quality

Other Know Definitions from Quality Leaders

* Dr. Edwards Deming stated that, "Quality means the efficient production of quality that the market expects".

* Dr. Juran says it is "Fitness for use".

* Phillip Crosby describes it as "conformance to requirements".

* Dr. Armand Feigenbaum observed quality as "the total composite product and service characteristics of marketing, engineering, manufacturing, and maintenance through which the product and service in use will meet the expectations of the customer".

Source: (SWRHA, Quality Handbook, 2003)

According to the aforementioned definitions it can be stated that quality revolves around exceeding the customer-expected needs by addressing any deficiencies that would impede the processes of the product or service.

3. Why Focus on Quality

Due to the demand by consumers for a high quality, cost effective product or service, great focus is placed on quality by organisations. Quality has proven to be the main ingredient in sustaining long-term consumer relationships, the tool for attracting new consumers and an agent for reducing cost.

Emphasizing on Quality Management will assure world-class standards, allowing the organization to be more market and customer driven, while having increased competition and employee empowerment. In addition, the organisation will be able to keep abreast of technology while being innovative and creative in its environment. As a result, methods of quality improvement must be put into practice.

4. Approaches to Improving Quality

Once TQM has been successfully implemented there will be the need to continuously

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