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President John Adams

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John Adams Outline

I. John Adams (1735-1826)

A. Born October 30, 1735,

B. Died July 4, 1826, in Quincy

II. State in which John Adams was born

A. In Braintree (now Quincy) Massachusetts

III. Background

A. Education

1. Graduated for Harvard College in 1755

2. Taught school in Worchester

3. Studied law in the office of James Putnam

B. Occupation

1. 1770-Defensive lawyer for the famous case for the British accused in the Boston Massacre

2. 1774- Adams served as a delegate from Massachusetts to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia

3. July 4, 1776-Adams was a member of the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence

4. 1780- Returned Europe as minister to arrange for loans and trade

agreements in France and the Netherlands

5. 1785,-Adams was appointed the first U.S. minister to Britain

6. 1788-Became Vice President, George Washington became President

7.1792-Both men were reelected

8. 1796-Elected President

IV. Terms in office

A. 1797-1801

V. Issues the were prominent in each election

A. Disputes over foreign policy

* Dangerously close to war with France

* The French were at war with England and were angry that the United States because they refused to aid France.

B. Very high taxes were made, to pay for the war which the confidently expected to began at any time

C. The Alien and Sedition Acts

VI. Opponents by term

A. Thomas Jefferson- Democratic-Republican

VII. Vice President by term

A. Thomas Jefferson

VIII. Political Party of the President

A. Federalist

IX. Navy (1798) John Adams established the "United States Department of the Navy" and created the president appointed civilian position of "Secretary of the Navy Cabinet" to be in charge of the Department of the Navy. This gave America a working navy to protect the US coast line and shipping. The new navy removed reliance on merchant marines and played a major role in the undeclared Quasi-War with France which happened during John Adams term. Latter on the navy sent ship to Africa, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, and all around the pacific to protect US shipping and defeat the pirates of the seas.

Marine Corp (1798) The Marine Corp a specialized group of solider that fought on land and sea was re-formed. They helped fight the French with a landed in Santo Domingo and fought against the Barbary pirates along the Shores of Tripoli. This helped the US merchants move more safely in foreign waters.

X. Taxes (1798) Federalists raised taxes to increase the size and strength of the army. The new taxes proved to be unpopular

XI. None

XII. Quasi-War (1798) The British were at war with the French an ally of America from the American Revolution. During the war US ships were trading with Britain and France which the French did not like and so they began to seize US ship trading with Britain. This caused newly made navy to take action fight the French in the Undeclared Quasi-War in 1798 which lasted till 1800 when John Adams ended it through diplomacy avoiding an all-out war with France

Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) To stop aliens from string up trouble. The Alien Act allowed the president to deport any resident alien he deemed a risk to the peace and safety of the US. The Sedition Act made it an illegal to publish false, scandalous, and malicious writing against the US government and its officials.

XIII. XYZ Affair (1797 to 1800) The Federalists party was split beyond repair over Adams decisions with France over the XYZ Affair.

Judiciary Act of 1801(1801)The Judiciary Act of 1801 was and act by the weakening Federalist party to maintain control of the federal judiciary during and after John Adams term of Presidency. It was disliked by Republicans which removed it when they came to power in 1802 with a majority in Congress.

Midnight Judges (1801) The Midnight Judges were a number of Federalist judges appointed by John Adams less than 30 days before the end of his term, as a last effort to keep Federalist officials in power during the next presidents term. Most of the appointed judges were unseated by the next president. One of the best Known judges to keep the seat was Jon Marshall which was Chief



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