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Organizational Behaviour-Power

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Power is the ability of one group to have impact on another to perform in given manner which is often a role of dependence and the usage of this dependence by way of influence. (Panteli, N & Tucker, R 2009, p.113). The most fundamental requirement of power is one’s belief of their dependency on others. Investigations by Likert (1967) presented that using of positive power in participative management styles led to higher industrial productivity. French and Raven (1959) came up with five basic origin of managerial power named legitimate power, reward power, coercive power, expert power and referent power. In addition to, formal authority is pursued by the initial three power bases and ability and quality of the manager belong to the last two power bases. The purpose of this essay is demonstrating the comparisons and alterations of normative and coercive power with their definitions. Moreover, it will critically examine how different entities utilize normative control by their managements and discuss this control from unitarist and Radical Marxist and Labour process viewpoint eventually.

Coercive power is the capability to regulator others through the fear of punishment or the loss of valued results (PSU WC, 2014, L. 7). When an employee doesn’t follow instructions or reluctant to respond to any other powers, coercive power tends to be followed. Despite having several disadvantages, coercive power is much suitable in some circumstances. This power is effective in the case of employee’s absenteeism, being constantly late, harassment, violent, enforcing policies etc. Leaders get ultimate control in an organization when coercive power is there. Totalitarianism is the most universal method of coercive power where threat and force has been applied by autocratic individual or minor group. Nazi Germany, Stalinist Russia and Uganda under Idi Amin are the recent illustrations of totalitarian rules.

Normative control is generally recognised shapes of actions which is away from traditional policies and procedures. Etziono (1961, 1980) termed normative power as allocation of “symbolic rewards”, “esteem and prestige symbols” and the use of rituals and norms for supporting positive reply (Etzioni, 1961, p. 5; 1980, p. 88). Leaders tends to have charisma, are convincing, controlling in their actions. They have affirmative interactive affairs with their followers which is considered as high ethical involvement and a ‘’positive orientation of high intensity’’ (Etzioni, 1961, p. 10). This power is more related with higher level employees who have more dedication, participation. Leaders who prefer normative compliance also prefer employment involvement in the activities of an organization including commitment and co-optation in administrative places and structures (Selznick, 1957).

In both coercive and normative control, there is one goal that is to make profit in an organization. Also, Coercive control can coincide with normative control when organize negotiated consensus decision making process is utilized by a group for exercising ‘a tightening of the icon cage. Alvesson (2004) claims that normative control may work in situations where other types fail which is applicable for coercive too. Coercive control doesn’t need to be maintained over direct command and instant management all the time unlike normative control which means coercive control can be exercised through coercive-normative and compliance-self regulatory power. The example of indirect normative power is when an employee works additional hours and puts extra efforts for bonus and there is threat of cutting off the bonus. Moreover, corporate culture which tends to be another form of normative control encourages team work in an entity that leads to productivity. Similarly, in coercive power the leaders make subordinates to be discipline that tend to progress productivity (Quain,2018).  It means leaders share a structured platform which is maintain by all the employees of the entity that leads to commitment and productivity. Therefore, a healthy relationship is seen among the members of the entity enabling assistance and shared liability.

In normative control leaders tend to influence peoples‟ values and their understanding of reality, which is linked to culture (Kärreman et al..2007) and in coercive control leaders tend to force subordinates to do a specific task which one doesn’t want to do by threatening or punishing (Grimsley S. 2008). So, in normative the key point is to influence in order to make someone work and their force and threat is applicable in coercive power. One of the main advantages of utilizing coercive power is that it helps administrators to control over the way an entity function. On the other hand, Alvesson (2004) recommends that one of the key benefits of normative control is that it achieve commitment from subordinates. Welch et al. mentions that commitment as organization fellow’s commitment to the entity, its norm and standards. Coercive power is effective for the short term but it generates various serious problems in the long run for organizational effectiveness (Grimsley,2018).



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