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New Deal Outline

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Eli Marcus

History, Period 5

The New Deal

I. FDR and the First New Deal

A. FDR Takes the Helm

1. Roosevelt was generally popular and got good grades

2. Marriage to Eleanor

i. distant cousins

ii. March 17, 1905 they were married

3. An Emerging Politician

i. democrat

ii. 1921 polio left him paralyzed

iii. treatment gave him partial use of his legs

iv. spoke publicly in 1924 since the attack

4. The Roosevelt Victory

i. Roosevelt proposed a solid and straightforward plan of action to end depression

ii. was open to all ideas (ex. Employed Republicans)

iii. The Hundred Days

B. The Hundred Days

1. Moratorium - temporary shutdown of operations

2. Stemming the Bank Crisis

i. William Woodin appointed to resolve bank crisis

ii. FDR reassured the people their money is safer with new banks

3. A New Deal

i. Roosevelt pledged a new deal for the American people

ii. 3 R's

4. Emergency Relief

i. many unemployed people had to apply for public aid

ii. FERA distributed $5 million for aid

iii. dole - government charity

5. Civilian Conservation Corps

i. CCC put lots of unemployed men to work

ii. men ages 18-25 worked to preserve the environment

iii. food, lodging, and $30 a month was provided

iv. bonus army were first recruits of CCC

6. Public Works Administration

i. PWA helped provide jobs for unemployed

ii. spent $3.3 billion on projects such as the restoration of public facilities

7. National Recovery Administration

i. by 1940, American industry was down 40%

ii. Roosevelt sponsored the National Industrial Recovery Act

iii. NIRA established the NRA

iv. NIRA organized labor unions

v. launched huge publicity campaigns

8. Agricultural Adjustment Administration

i. AAA helped farmers who were hit hard by the depression

ii. subsidy - financial assistance

iii. unfortunately, many farmers already began harvesting when the AAA was created so they ended having to under-plow and kill newborn animals

iv. Roosevelt then authorized the FERA to buy some crops instead

9. Tennessee Valley Authority

i. TVA built dams in the Tennessee River to make electricity

ii. enriched land

10. Reform Laws

i. Truth-in-Securities Act and Glass-Steagall Banking Act

ii. TIS Act prevented banks from stock investing and established the FDIC which reassured safety of peoples' money

iii. between March 9 - June 16, Roosevelt proposed 15 new bills

C. The President and the People

1. Fireside Chats

i. addressed the American people through radio speeches

2. Eleanor's Influence

i. when FDR caught polio, Eleanor didn't want her husbands political reputation ruined

ii. Women's Trade Union League and League of Women's Voters

iii. often looked up to

iv. held her own press conferences

v. they were a great team

CT #4

4. Without addressing the three R's, FDR may have not received enough recognition and violent opposition may have grown even more against him. The three R's gave people the feeling of support and made them side with FDR, further securing his presidency and acceptance.

II. Criticism and Reformulation

A. New Deal: Big Deal!

1. Protests of Tenant Farmers

i. AAA hurt some more than helped

ii. farmers were sometimes forced to reduce crop and reduce acres

iii. STFU went on strike despite heavy opposition

2. Voices of Labor

i. NIRA allowed workers to join any union

ii. Unionization - formation of unions

iii. unionization increased strikes

iv. FDR worried about economic recovery

3. Reactionary and Radical Voices

i. Dr. Townsend pension plan

ii. Charles Coughlin had a radio show (anti-Semitic)

iii. demagogue - a leader who gains power by appealing to people's prejudices and fears rather than by appealing to reason

iv. Coughlin attacked FDR

v. Huey Long sided

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