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Midterm Study Guide 371 - Stress Proliferation

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50 multiple questions / choose 3 from 6 to answer

Draw stages of change model - label - describe how the stages apply for an alcoholic person

Maslow’s hierarchy

Physiological, safety, belonginess, esteem needs, self-actualizaton

Cognitive behavioral techniques

Stress proliferation

Stress proliferation is defined as the development or expansion of a stressor or set of stressors within and beyond a situation, resulting in additional stressors that were not originally present

Chapter 1, priority objectives for the midterm

1. Define health psychology

        Health Psychology refers to understanding psychological influences on how people stay healthy, why people become ill and how they respond when they do get ill.

What are some psychological processes?

  • Personality process : extroverts, etc. - How people respond when they get sick, etc.
  • Illusion on race - how to approach wellness
  • Learning style
  • Stress management- how you respond to a stressful situation
  • Gender roles
  • Sexuality - how you view and practice sex - attitudes towards sex




  • Health promotion and maintenance
  • Prevention and treatment of illness
  • Etiology and correlates of health, illness and dysfunction
  • The health care system and the formulation of health policy

 2. Describe the changing philosophical perspectives on the mind-body relationship from the time of ancient cultures to the present day.


Disease was believed to be:

  • Evil spirits entering the body
  • The result of the imbalance of blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm - substances that should be in harmony
  • God's punishment for evil-doing ("moral model")

The Moral Model:


Individuals are seem as responsible both for the causes of and the solutions to their health problems.


-> Admit you have moral failing, which is why you got sick - please redeem me for my moral failure so I don't get sick.

Technological advances in science meant looking to bodily factors rather than the mind as bases for health and illness

3. What was Freud’s contribution to perspectives on the mind-body relationship?

        Psychoanalytic Contributions -> conversion hysteria:

Unconscious conflicts produce physical disturbances such as "glove anesthesia" (sudden loss of speech, hearing, or sight), tremors, muscular paralysis, possible eating disorders.

Idea of conversion hysteria. Specific unconscious conflicts can produce physical disturbances that symbolize repressed

4. Compare and contrast the biopsychosocial model and biomedical models of health. Summarize the advantages of the biopsychosocial model.

Biopsychosocial model:

Health and illness are consequences of the interplay of biological, psychological and social factors.




Biomedical Model:

An illness can be explained on the basis of aberrant somatic bodily processes; psychological and social processes are irrelevant to disease process


Advantages of the Biopsychosocial Model:

  • Macro-level processes and micro-level processes interact to produce a state of health or illness


The mind and the body often cannot be distinguished in matters of health and illness

  • Thus, researchers have adopted a systems theoretical approach to health and illness.


Clinical Implications:


  • Diagnosis should always consider biological, psychological and social factors in assessing an individual's health or illness.
  • Recommendations for treatment must examine all three sets of factors
  • The relationship between the patient and the practitioner is significant

[pic 1]

5. Explain the case history of Nightmare Deaths. What is the story told to illustrate?

  • Unexpected deaths during sleep to Southeast Asian refugee males
  • Rare, genetically-based malfunction in the heart's natural pacemaker
  • Men who were successfully resuscitated said they had been having severe night terror
  • Biological, psychological and cultural factors were involved in the deaths.

Death during sleeping of refugee men from SE Asia. Found to be related to stress and anxiety as well as a genetic pacemaker issue. Shows how mind and body are very intertwined!

6. Broadly speaking, describe changing patterns of illness and causes of death in the United States.

        Heart disease


        Respiratory diseases


Pattern of change: central issue with subsidiaries

Went from acute to chronic diseases.

7. Differentiate between acute disorders and chronic illnesses.

Acute conditions are severe and sudden in onset. This could describe anything from a broken bone to an asthma attack. A chronic condition, by contrast is a long-developing syndrome, such as osteoporosis or asthma. Note that osteoporosis, a chronic condition, may cause a broken bone, an acute condition.

8. Explain the role of theory in health psychology.

Theories applicable to adherence -> contribute to create effective interventions

Chapter 3, priority objectives for the midterm

 1. Define health behaviors. How do they differ from health habits?

Health Behaviors

  • What is the role of behavioral factors in disease and disorder?
  • Successful modification of health behaviors can:
  • Reduce the number of deaths due to lifestyle related illnesses
  • Delay time of death (increase longevity)
  • Improve quality of life: expand the # of years free from chronic disease complications


Health Behaviors:

Behaviors undertaken by people to enhance or maintain their health


Health Habits:

Firmly established behaviors that are often performed automatically such as wearing a seatbelt, brushing one's teeth and eating healthy diet




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