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Management & Leadership

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Management and Leadership

Management and leadership are two words that are considered synonymous but describe two different concepts. According to the dictionary, management is the act, manner, or practice of managing; handling, supervision, or control; leadership is the capacity or ability to lead. In many organizations, management is a job description; leadership is a positive trait. The purpose of this paper is to distinguish between the two, to look at the responsibilities that come with leadership, and make suggestions about creating and maintaining a healthy organizational culture.

Management is "the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals" (Bateman-Snell, 2003, p. 14). Management is a theory and a way of doing business. Management is a process that is exercised in order for an organization to be successful. This process is usually broken down into four established functions: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (Bateman-Snell, 2003, p. 14). The people within an organization that practice management are called managers.

Managers are "principally administrators--they write business plans, set budgets and monitor progress" (Maccoby, 2000, para 1). Other tasks handled by managers are problem-solving and facilitating meetings. Managers usually achieve their position through experience and understanding. A manager obtains authority through time and loyalty. A manager knows how the organization works and may also possess a good technical knowledge. People follow a manager because as employees, they are forced to, but preferably "a manager is also a leader that people want to follow" (Maccoby, 2000, para 8).

Leadership is "one of the many assets a successful manager must possess" (The Difference, 1997, para 2). While management can be considered a position, leadership can be considered a relationship. Leadership is the connection between the leader and led that makes management successful. This connection can strengthen the organization and make the work more focused and effective. Leadership is the ability to get people to follow. A person who exhibits the trait of leadership is called a leader.

A leader is a person who "influences others to attain goals" (McGraw-Hill, 2003, p. 366). A leader exhibits special qualities that induce people to admire her. These qualities can include drive, motivation, integrity, and self-confidence. A good leader can motivate people to do what is asked. She provides a clear vision and direction. An effective leader understands that leadership is not just a trait; it is a responsibility.

Organizations should practice two forms of responsibility: social and corporate. According to investorwords.com, social responsibility is "the idea that businesses should not function amorally, but instead should contribute to the welfare of their communities"; corporate responsibility is the "accountability of a corporation to a code of ethics and to established laws". An effective leader's goal is to practice steps to support these responsibilities.

One of the main steps of a leader is to create and maintain a healthy organizational culture. According to Edgar Schein (n.d.), an organization's culture defined is "a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way you perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems" (para. 5). A culture could be considered the company's personality. Each organization has its own culture, and this culture "determines the criteria for leadership" (Schein, n.d., para 11). An effective leader will shape the culture around the people working for the organization.

One of the ways a leader can create a healthy organizational culture is to establish a defined set of rules. Let each employee know what is expected of them and why. An organization should have a defined mission and vision. This allows a defined strategic plan to be put into place. Once the strategic plan is created, the leaders of an organization can start an operational plan and identify the

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