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How Motivation And Leadership Theories Can Be Applied.

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Goal Setting Theory:

In the late 1960s, Edwin Locke proposed that intentions to work toward

a goad are a major source of work motivation. That is, goals tel an

employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be made.

Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the

generalized goal of "do your best". Why? The specificity of the goal itself

seems to act as an internal stimulus. For instance, when a trucker

commits to making 12 round trips between Toronto and Buffalo, New York,

each week, this intention gives him a specific objective to try to


The conclusion is that intentions - as articulated in terms of hard and

specific goals - are the motivating force. Under proper conditions,

they can lead to higher performance.

How a manager can use Goal setting theory for effectiveness:

In order to make the goal setting theory operational a manager may use

MBO program:

Management by objective directly advocates specific goals and feedback.

MBO implies, rather than explicitly states, that goals must be

perceived as feasible. Consistent with goal setting.

MBO program is seen in many businesses like Contruction, Educationan


Reinforcement Theory:

Reinforcement theory explains that one gets motivated if appreciated

for his/her good performance and punished for poor performance.

For instance, appreciating a worker in front of colleagues for good


How a manager can use Reinforcement theory for effectiveness:

In order to make reinforcement theory operational, a manager may use Employee Recognition program:

Consistent with reinforcement theory, rewarding a behavior with

recognition immediately following that behavior is likely to encourage its

repetition. You can personally congratulate an employee in private for a

good job. You can send a handwritten note or an email message

acknowledging something positive that the employee has done. For Employees with a

strong need for social acceptance, you can publicly recognize

accomplishments. To enhance group hohesiveness and motivation, you can

celebrate team successes. For instance, you can throw a team pizza party to

celebrate a team's accomplishment.

Theory X and Theory Y:

Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one

basically negative, labelled Theory X and other basically positive, labelled

Theory Y.

Under theory X, the four assumptions held by managers are:

1. Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will

attempt to aviod it.

2. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or

threatened with punishment to achieve goals.

3. Employees will avoid reponsibilities and seek formal direction

whenever possible.

4. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with

work and will display little ambition.

Under theory Y, the four positive assumptions held by manager are:

1. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play.

2. People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are

committed to the objectives.

3. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility.

4. The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed

throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in

management positions.

How a manager can use Reinforcement theory for effectiveness:

In order to make Theory X and Theory Y operational, a manager may use the Employee involvement program:

Employee involvement has become a convenient catchall term to cover a

variety of techniques. For instance, it encompasses popular ideas such

as employee participation or participative management, representative

participation, quality circles etc.

Theory X alligns with the more traditional autocratic style and can be

motivated by financial motivational rewards, while Theory Y is

consistent with participative management.

Theory X programs:

Participative Management:

A process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision

making power



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