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Gcse Weimar Germany

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"WEIMAR

GERMANY

1918 Ð'-1933"

Contents

1. Background

2. Early Problems of the Weimar Republic

3. The Impact of the Treaty of Versailles

4. The Roots of Nazism

5. The Policies of Stresemann

6. The Impact of the Great Depression

7. The Growth and appeal of the Nazis

8. Reasons for the appointment of Hitler

9. Obscure Facts you may need to know

10. Test on Weimar and Nazi Germany

BACKGROUND

Background

Germany At War

In 1914, seven European countries went to war. By 1915, many in Germany were starting to complain and protest about the War. By 1916, anti-War protests were getting even bigger, although they were illegal. Many people were becoming fed up with the war.

British ships were blockading Germany's ports and people were getting hungry, especially as the 1916/17 crop failed.

An End to the War

Theme Date Event

Revolution from Above 2nd Oct 1918 General Ludendorff announced to the Reichstag Ð'- "We cannot win the war." *

Revolution from Below 31st Oct 1918 Mutiny at Kiel **

9th Nov 1918 Ebert becomes chancellor Ð'- Declaration of a Republic

Limited Revolution 10th Nov 1918 Ebert does a deal with General Groener Ð'- The Kaiser abdicates.

Armistice 11th Nov 1918 New Government (Social Democratic Party) ends War. ***

*The German Army leaders (e.g. Ludendorff) knew the War could not be won. So they passed over high command to the Reichstag (parliament). This means that when they ended the War, they took the blame, no the Army as it was never physically defeated.

Groener's deal with Ebert constituted of the Army helping the new government Ð'- it couldn't survive otherwise. So in a way, the Army passed the power to someone else, let the take the blame, and took the power back unscathed. This helps Hitler come into power in 1933.

**On 28th November 1918 the German Sailors at Kiel staged a mutiny in defiance of their Generals. They were arrested. Then more staged a meeting, and the revolution spread throughout the entire city. The Independent Socialists Party took over Bavaria during this and declared it an independent state.

*** The Social Democratic Party

Led by Freidrich Ebert. It aimed to take over by supporting the Government and making reforms through acts of Parliament. He took over when the Kaiser abdicated.

EARLY PROBLEMS OF THE

WEIMAR REPUBLIC

The Weimar Constitution

Ebert held elections in January. Both women and men could vote if they were over 18 (universal suffrage) . Ebert's party dominated the election results, and Ebert remained Chancellor (Prime Minister). Because of the extreme violence in Berlin, Ebert and all politicians moved to the peaceful city of Weimar to write a new German Constitution.

Terms Strengths Weaknesses

ProportionalRepresentation All Parties have a chance to be heard. Creates weak coalition governments.

Article 48(Emergency Powers) In a time of emergency the Chancellor could declare all laws of the constitution null and void. Designed to stop Communist Revolutions quickly and immediately. Abused by President who could legally make himself dictator.

Universal Suffrage Men and Women aged 18+ have equal rights to vote and all equal under law. Means anyone can be heard, no matter what their ideas. In a time of great trouble for Germany, this was a bad thing.

Lander (Gau) Ð'-County Privilliges Each state had its own government and kept is own traditions. Encourages rivalries between each state & also allows states to be hostile towards the government.

Weimar Democratic System

Sparticist's Revolt

They staged many protests and failed. On New Year's Eve 1918, they renamed themselves the Germans Communist Party, and looked for a Communist Revolution. They started in 6th January 1919. But the Free Corps (ex Ð'- soldiers) supported Ebert and on 10 January, 2000 attacked the Sparticists in Berlin. On 15 January Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht were killed. The German Communist Party is also known as the Ð''KPD'.

Free Corps

They killed basically anyone who they were told to. They were ex Ð'- soldiers, anti Ð'- Communist and brutal. They held Munich under Control of the Government.

Putsches and Murders

13th March 1920 Ð'- the Kapp Putsch

Wolfgang Kapp, an extreme nationalist, led 5000 members of the Free Corps on Berlin and captured it. He aimed to make the Army stronger, regain German pride and take back lost land. He had the support of the Police, the Free Corps and some of the Army. But the workers did not. They organized a General Strike, and the country came to a halt. After 100 hours as Germany's leader, he fled to Sweden, and Ebert and his government returned to Berlin.

21st March 1920 Ð'- the Red Rising

However the workers in the Ruhr Valley stayed on strike and the Communists formed a Red Army, 50,000 strong. The same Free Corps that had rebelled just over a week earlier were sent in to put down the new rebellion. This scared many people, and new measures were drawn up to deal with Communist Revolutions.

24th June 1922 Ð'- the murder of Walther Rathenau

Between 1919 and 1922 there were 365 political

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