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Evaluating Depression Atypical Psychology Theory

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Evaluating Depression Atypical Psychology Theory

Depression is a mood disorder which halt individuals from leading a normal life, at work socially or within their family. Seligman (1973) defined depression as the ‘common cold’ of psychiatry because of its frequency of diagnosis.

There is certain diverse description for disorder schizophrenia. One of these definition is the biological model. This model analyze schizophrenia through biological flaw, such as viral infections and brain abnormalities.

Genetic Factors

Most psychologists suggest that schizophrenia can be occur down generations, subject that some people can obtain the disorder from their parents.

Also, research by Sherrington et al. (1988) has construct a gene found on chromosome 5 which has been related in a small number of extended families where they have the disorder. Confirmation propose that the closer the biological relationship, the greater the risk of developing schizophrenia. Kendler (1985) has explained that first-degree relatives of those with schizophrenia are 18 times more at risk than the general population. Gottesman (1991) also suggested that schizophrenia is more prevalent in the biological relatives of a schizophrenic, and that the adjacent the term of genetic application, the greater the risk. Also twin research has typically exhibited that identical twins have a greater risk of developing schizophrenia, only if their twin has the disorder disease, than non-identical twins. Gottesman explained that monozygotic twins have a concord rate of 48%, whilst dizygotic twins have a similarity rate of 17%.

Evaluation of Genetic Factors

This research explains that there is a precise match amid genetics and the risk of developing schizophrenia.

Nonetheless, no twin research has showed a 100% concordance rate; therefore, it is impossible the say that genes cause schizophrenia, as other factors clearly have an influence.

Also, some psychologists argue that the high consonance rates construct could also be caused by being brought up in a family with a schizophrenic, therefore there is a chance the child could mimic the schizophrenic behavior, rather than by genetics

One of the weakness for genetic explanation of schizophrenia is that there are mechanical problems. Family, twin and adoption studies must be studied carefully because they are reflective and diagnosis could be partisan by knowledge that other family members who may have been diagnosed. This explained that there may be problems of pursuit characteristics

The Dopamine Hypothesis

The dopamine hypothesis claim that schizophrenia is generated by an enlarge reaction to doping in the brain. This could be there is too much of the hormone dopamine in the brain as there is an abnormally high number of dopamine reset in the brain. This model suggests the excess sensitivity to dopamine issue in the brain aim the symptoms of schizophrenia.

Evaluation of the Dopamine Hypothesis

Autopsies have suggested a remarkably high number of dopamine receptors in the brain of schizophrenics (Owen et al, 1987) yet, this information is diverse and uncertain. Grilly (2002) initiate that patients who endure from Parkinson’s and took the drug ’L-dopa’ which can increase dopamine levels, demonstrated signal of schizophrenic symptoms. This recommend the increase in dopamine could result in schizophrenia.

Limitations with this explanation

There are issues of the dopamine hypothesis. One of its weakness is the antipsychotic drugs, which could block dopamine receptor and can influence patients, proving there is a cause of schizophrenia as well; the drugs contrarily would be beneficial to all patients.

Brain dysfunction

Technology use of brain imaging techniques, such as P.E.T scans, researchers have suggested many schizophrenics have enough ventricles, averaging 15% greater than normal. Some psychologists conclude that the increase in the size of these ventricles can leads to the schizophrenic symptoms.


The brain imaging scans back this explanation, it’s clear that a lot of schizophrenics have different brain structures to normal people, so there must be some parallel between the two. Meyer-Lindenberg (2002) suggested that reduced activity of the prefrontal cortex is related to dopamine abnormalities. This could provide an explanation of why brain dysfunction could cause schizophrenia.

Viral Infection

Some researchers suggest that brain abnormalities leading to schizophrenia could be caused by viral infection. Such diseases include Flu or Syphilis in the womb which could relate to developing schizophrenia in later life.

Evaluation of Viral Theory

Torrey (2000) found that more schizophrenics are born in the winter, when it is cold and exposure to viruses is higher, than in other months. Although this link is only correlational it suggests viruses do affect the chance of developing schizophrenia

Word count for Part 2: 730


Chakroff, A., and Young, L., 2015. Harmful situations, impure people: An attribution asymmetry across moral domains. Cognition, 136, pp. 30-37.

Coid, J., & Ullrich, S. (2010). Antisocial personality disorder and anxiety



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