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European Union And Troubles With Energy

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Environmental Policy

ESSAY ASSESMENT

European Union and troubles with energy

22nd February 2007

Contents

Introduction 3

Present problems of the energy and impact on environment 3

EU targets - Kyoto Protocol 4

EU citizens' abutment 4

1 Old and New European energy policy 5

1.1 European environmental policy 5

1.2 Necessity of new efficient energy policy and legislation 5

1.3 An integrated energy and climate change package 5

2 Power sources - concrete issues and solutions 6

2.1 Nuclear power 6

2.1.1 Issues 6

2.1.2 Necessity of nuclear energy 7

2.1.3 European Commission and Nuclear Power 7

2.2 Imported energy versus independence 8

2.3 Renewable resources 8

2.4 Clear Development of developing countries - focus on China 9

2.4.1 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 9

2.4.2 Developing China 9

Conclusion 11

References 12

Abbreviations 13

Appendixes 14

Appendix 1 14

Appendix 2 18

Introduction

This paper extend my earlier essay that studied role of European Union in solving global environmental problems; and focus in detail on reduced chapter about Power Sources, because it is essential to deal with energy issues as quickly as possible and it is most discussed problem of these days.

Aim of this paper is collect and connect all important circumstances to create complete picture of current position of European Union in global climate issues and European energy issues.

Present problems of the energy and impact on environment

The current environmental issues are climate change, global warming, high consumption of energy and resources, accumulation of waste, fading of biodiversity away, polluting in common areas, trans-boundary pollution and many others. This paper will focus on European Union (EU) energy and environmental strategies and its impact on these issues. Since energy issue has high level of importance; according to European Commission (EC) 94 % of emissions of CO2 in EU are caused by power industry; it is imperative to deal with these problems continuously.

Currently EU solving riddle: reduce nuclear energy, as well as reduce emissions and at same time want to reduce dependence on imported energy, besides development of renewable clean resource continue more slowly than was expected, and furthermore is important does not hurt EU economy and competitiveness against American and Asia industries.

According to EC (Europa, IP/07/29) within this century global temperature will rise by 5 degrees. By current energy and transport policy, emissions will not fall but will rise by about 5 % by 2030. Dependence of EU on imported energy will increase by more than 15 %. Besides opportunities of liberal EU market are not fully availed in energy fields. These forecasts whatever does not correspond with targets that EU pledge to reach.

EU targets - Kyoto Protocol

Kyoto Protocol (KP) could be ratify after fulfilment of two conditions, which are ratification by 55 countries and ratification by so many countries of Appendix I that their share on emissions in 1990 is equal to 55 %. After lengthy negotiations KP came into effect in 2005. According to Kyoto Protocol signatories should reach reduction of greenhouse gases by more than 5 % bellow volume in year 1990 during period 2008 - 2012.

Members of EU15 (before 2004) sign KP as one and has joint target (8 %), so while some members may even increase emissions, as whole EU15 will reduce it. Current EU27 does not share targets and members have individual goals of 8 %, Poland and Hungary 6 % and Cyprus and Malta do not need to reduce emissions. (Europa, IP/05/1519)

As one of signatories EU is step by step launching new mechanisms (such as Emission Trading, Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism) to reach Kyoto targets. This paper focus primarily on Clean Development Mechanism (see chapter 2.4) that offers good opportunities for EU developed as well as for developing countries to reach their targets.

EU citizens' abutment

According to Eurobarometer survey (Europa, MEMO/07/03) 60 % of EU citizens believe that energy research should be priority of EU and these people also are hopeful of renewable energies are going to replace fossil fuels. 54 % of them consider that reduction of energy consumption in their country is very important. These facts show that people of European Union back up its new incoming policy.

1 Old and New European energy policy

1.1 European environmental policy

This policy is based on set of principles (Ekolist) which are:

* high level of environment protection

* precautionary principle

* prevention principle

* polluter pays principle

* principle of integration

* subsidiary principle

* sustainability principle.

1.2

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