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Ethnic Groups

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Abstract: The thesis is concerning on the differences of the Ethnic groups of UK and USA from different aspects. The history influences the roots of the people, which made the population of the two countries. And it shows the roles the different ethnic groups play in their society and their living conditions of now and future and how the different groups influenced on their culture, social system and languages, which are very unique in the world of the two countries.

Key Words: Ethnic groups, populations

1. History of ethic groups

1). UK

Britain has a population of 57,411,000(1990). When we bring up Germanic, it always reminds us of German without knowing that English are also Germanic. Anglo-Saxons and Celts are Germanic. The English are Anglo-Saxons, but the Scots, Welsh and Irish are Celts. The Celts were different groups of ancient people who came originally from Germany and spread through France, Spain and Britain. The Celts came to Britain after 700 BC. Germanic Angles and Saxons invaded and conquered Britain during the fifth century. In the 9th century, the Norman French invaded Britain. At this time, English people were born. The ancestors of the Welsh were the ancient Britons who escape from the invading Angles and Saxons and found shelter in the wild mountains of Wales. The Scots who are the Highland people are those who live in their mountain and had never been conquered by the English. The Irish are Scots and English Protestants who were sent to live in Northern Ireland because of religious denominations. After World War 2, the immigrants came and lived in Britain who were mainly from the West Indies, India and Pakistan.

2). USA

The United States of America has a population of 255.5 million in 1992. For USA was the colony of UK, there are many different racial and ethnic groups. Blacks who were brought to North America as slaves in 1619 are the largest of the racial and ethnic minorities in US. They are the 12.1% of the populations. Chicanos, Puerto Ricans and Cuban-Americans, comprising 9% of the total population in 1992, make up the Hispanics, which is a large group in US. The Asian Americans are the fastest-growing racial and ethnic groups in US, comprising 3% of the total population. Indians are the real Americans who were the local people before the arrival of the first Europeans. The mainstream Americans were whit Anglo-Saxon Protestants who came to America by May Flower because of the religious reasons. The white ethnics have English roots-13.1% of the total population and German roots- 23.2% and Irish roots-15.5% of the populations.

3). Comparison:

Because of the different histories, the ethnic groups of the two countries are also different. Many people in USA are originally from Europe. To compare with the people in USA, the blood of the English is more pure because of they don't have many other different ethnic groups as Americans do while in USA there are too many different races because of the colonial history. Therefore, USA is like a small country which has many different kinds of people and mix-racial.

2. The Ethnic Groups nowadays:

1). UK

In UK, 90% of the population is urban and only 10% is rural. It means most people live in cities and towns and only a few live in the country. England has the largest population among England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. More and more people from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland come and live in England. English used to claim that they are from England instead of UK. Differences in regional character and speech can still been seen and heard. Many people are doing all they can to preserve their own language and culture while Welsh are emotional and cheerful and Scots are hospitable, generous and friendly. Because of the immigrants, they are some people from different countries coming to UK. Like what mentioned above, because the blood of English people are more pure, so the immigrants in UK are more discriminated than in USA. The immigrants often have low social statues and rank. It has not been easy for them to find decent jobs or decent places to live. There are laws to protect them from unfair treatment, but these laws do not always work successfully.

2). USA

In USA, more people are living in cities. The USA is known as a nation of immigrants because many of its people descend from settlers who come from all over the world. The Hispanics and colored people are still discriminated in one way or another. Colored people used to be segregated from white people. Many places are not opened for colored people. Colored children and white children couldn't go to the same school. However, the USA had a more or less open-door policy to immigrants from independence until the 1960s, we can see black people working in government and in movies. Asian Americans are the most successful immigrants because they are working hard. About 20% of freshmen at some of the country's top universities are Asian Americans. In the old times, life in USA for Asian people were very hard but now they are working in different fields like sports, science and government. Because of the large group of immigrants, the government is also making efforts on the equality of the laws and society.

3). Comparisons

Both of UK and USA have large populations. More people are living in cities in the two countries. USA has more immigrants than UK does. To compare with UK, USA works better



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