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Essay by   •  December 14, 2015  •  Creative Writing  •  349 Words (2 Pages)  •  687 Views

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The Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

-->it is the first international legally binding instrument to deal with problems of air pollution on a broad regional basis.

--> it was opened for sign in 1979 and entered into force 4 years later

-->extended by eight specific protocols

-->51 parties(All in Europe -->Europe+ North America+Central East)

--> it focus on reducing air pollutant that could travel several thousand km,E.g. sulphur dioxide, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, heavy metal, Volatile organic compounds, Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

--> which affect regional or even global temperture/climate change

b)the convention is effective to a large extent. It is responsive, 8 protocols( 2 updated in 2012; one updated in 2009)

        Gothenburg and Heavy Metals Protocols revised in 2012• Tighter emission ceilings for SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3 for 2020• Added a ceiling for PM2.5• All ceilings to be achieved by 2020

        Emission data table updated twice a year

        Some of the new , Persistent Organic Pollutants POPs that are polar or ionizing, e.g. PFOS(Per-flu-o-rooc-tane sulfonates) and PFCAs(Per fluo rin ated car box (si) ylic acid), have higher water solubilities and are susceptible to oceanic transport. However, there are relatively few studies on oceanic transport of either new or legacy POPs,


-->For the effect on reducing air pollutant. after it enter into force, there are huge reduction in air pollutant emisson, esp on sulphur dioxide.Also,Canada and the United States will bring in their emission reduction obligations upon ratification .heres another statistics shows the huge decline after the implementation of CLRTAP, comparing to asia which mostly not join the protocol.

However, there are still some limitations.

First, there are Difficulties in dealing with ammonia emissions as we see the decline rate is low



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