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Design a Plant for Treatment of 10000 Lithium Ion Batteries

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DESIGN A PLANT FOR TREATMENT OF 10000 LITHIUM ION BATTERIES

NAME: ABHIJEET SUBUDHI

ROLL NO. 14CHE1032

GUIDE: - PROF. Ashwin W. Patwardhan

INTRODUCTION

lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging. Li-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as one electrode material, compared to the metallic lithium used in a non-rechargeable lithium battery. The electrolyte, which allows for ionic movement, and the two electrodes are the constituent components of a lithium-ion battery cell. The use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is expected to increase in the near future. The main reason for this will be the use of electric cars, which use LIBs as the power source. LIBs are also widely used in portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones and laptops). The popularity of LIBs is due to their high energy density, high voltages and low weight to volume ratio (Xu et al., 2008). LIBs have an expected lifespan of 3-5 years. Over the next few years, an increasingly large waste stream of LIBs is expected. LIBs contain toxic and flammable components, as well as valuable metals such as Li, Ni, Cu and Co. For these reasons, there are benefits to recycling used LIBs, instead of disposal in landfills.

According to the directives published in many countries, the adequate destination of spent batteries may involve methods such as landfill disposition, stabilization, incineration and/or

recycling processes. Safe disposal in landfills or stabilization of battery residues becomes more and more expensive due to the increasing amount of waste produced, and also due to the limited storage capacity of sanitary landfills and/or special waste dumpsites. Incineration of batteries is an expensive method as well and it can even cause mercury, cadmium and dioxin emissions into the environment.

[pic 1]

Fig 1. Waste management hierarchy is one presentation and recommendation of waste treatment options

In a closer examination, the level of recycling can be specified. When the recycled material can substitute a large share of virgin material in a new product and has properties close to the original quality, the level of recycling is considered high. Using the material in a commodity that has clearly lower quality or functionality than the original one is in turn referred to as “downcycling”. (Worrell 2014a, p. 499). It is hence thought that more of the original material value and the energy investments made for it are restored by higher level of recycling.

LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

In an LIB, the cathode is an aluminium plate coated with the cathode material, which is a lithium metal oxide. The typical composition of LIBs is provided in Xu et al (2008). Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is used to bind the electrode coating to the plate.

[pic 2]

Fig 2: Typical composition of an LIB

BATTERY RECYCLING

The recycling of LIBs has an enormous potential for economically strategic industrial metals. However, there is a growing amount of diverse lithium-ion subsystems, operating with different metals and lithium compounds in the cathode material. The Li-ion battery is named after the used cathode material such as LCO (lithium cobalt oxide), NCM (lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide), NCA (lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide) and LFP (lithium iron phosphate). As a result of missing industrial agreement on standards it is not possible to distinct these systems visually. This severely complicates the efficient recycling processes. Recycling processes for LIBs are combinations of different unit operations. Fig 3 summarizes possible process options for the involved unit operations such as deactivation, mechanical treatment, as well as the subsequent pyro- and hydrometallurgical treatments. The scheme displayed in Fig3 depicts the advantage of combining different unit operations in order to fulfill the goal of high recovery rates. Thus, the casing, copper and aluminum foil, and the most valuable components such as nickel, cobalt, and manganese can be recovered using a combination of mechanical and hydrometallurgical treatments.

[pic 3]

Fig 3. Unit operations in battery recycling and their possible combinations to establish efficient recycling process routes.

INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CHAINS

In the following section, some processes that aim to recycle LIBs are introduced. Both existing industrial scale processes and emerging processes in pilot plant phase or under commercialization are discussed. The often-used classification to hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes (Bernardes et al. 2004) or additionally to physical/mechanical processes.

1. Retriev Technologies Inc. (former Toxco Inc.)

[pic 4]

Fig 4. Flowchart of Toxco’s (Retriev Technologies Inc.) hydrometallurgical recycling process for LIBs.

2. Umicore (Val’Eas Process)

[pic 5]

Fig 5. Flowchart of Umicore’s pyrometallurgical recycling process for LIBs.

3. Recupyl

[pic 6]

Fig 6. Flowchart of Recupyl’s hydrometallurgical recycling process for LIBs.

4. Accurec

[pic 7]

Fig 7. Flowchart of Accurec’s recycling process for LIBs.

COMPARISON OF THE PROCESS

PROCESS/TREATMENT

UMICORE

RETRIEV TECHNOLOGIES

RECUPYL

ACCUREC

Overview to the recycling processes

FEED

LiB

LiB

LiB

LiB

DISCHARGE

In furnace

In crushing

In crushing

In furnace

MECHANICAL

-

Brine / N2

Ar / CO2

Ambient

HYDRO

HCl

Na2CO3 / CO2

H20, LiOH, H2SO4, Steel, NaClO, Li3PO4

H2SO4

PYRO

Coke, Slag Formers, Air

-

-

2 slag binders

MAIN END PRODUCTS

CoCl2

MeO-C-cake, Li2CO3

LCO/CO(OH)2/Co, Other cell materials

Co-alloy, Li2CO3

Recycling processes in relation to cathode material recovery

FOCUS

Co

Co

Co

Co

CATHODE RECYCLING PRODUCT

CoCl2

MeO + C cake

LCO/CO(OH)2/Co

Co-alloy

END USE

Cathode material

Metal manufacturing

unknown

As such

LEVEL VS CATHOD PRECURSOR

Ready for hydrothermal synthesis of LCO

-

-

-

BINDER

In furnace, but not discussed

Not discussed

Not discussed

In furnace

The status and the methods of Li recovery in different recycling technologies

LI RECOVERED

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

PRODUCT

-

Li2CO3

Li2CO3 / Li3PO4

Li2CO3

METHOD

-

Precipitation with Na2CO3 / CO2

Precipitation with CO2

Precipitation

RECYCLING EFFICIENCY

-

90% probably in the presence of primary Li batteries

76 - 90%

50 - 60%

GRADE

-

Technical

> 99%

> 79%

TARGETED USE OF PRODUCT

-

Metals manufacturing

-

Glass production / active cathode powder synthesis

Recycling of foil and casing materials

CASINGS

Fe partly recovered in alloy,
Al slagged,
Polymer used as energy

Steel, Al and plastics recovered with shaker table

Steel recovered with magnetic separator; Al, Cu and plastics with densimetric separator

Polymer evaporated, Fe recovered with magnetic separator, Al with air separator

AL AND CU FOILS

Al slagged,
Cu recovered in alloy

Recovered with shaker table

Recovered with densimetric table
Impurity Cu also precipitated

Recovered with air separator

CATHODE MATERIAL LOOP

From cathode to cathode precursor

From cathode to raw material

-

From cathode to alloy

Processes using mechanical separation methods and the methods used

COMMINUTION

-

Shredder and/or hammer mill

Rotary shear, Impact mill

Mill

MAGNETIC SEPERATOR

-

-

High intensity

X

SIZE SEPERATION

-

Not mentioned

Vibrating screen

Vibrating screen

GRAVITY SEPERATOR

-

Densimetric table

Densimetric table

Zig zag air separator

Treating of graphite in different technologies

GRAPHITE

Used as reducing agent in furnace

Recovered in MeO + C filter cake

Filtered off in leaching step

Partly burnt; partly used in carbo-reductive melting; finally, slagged

...

...

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