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Content Analysis

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Abstract: This article summarizes the violence of football fans in countries of Eastern Europe identified by the content analysis method. The main source of research was case and newspaper articles in the electronic journals.


violence, conflict situations, deviant behavior, football fans, football hooliganism, football, Eastern European Soccer, Violence

Crushing, Fights, Media, Social Identification, Elections, Aggression, Stadium Security, Stadium Structure, Inter-group conflict, Police Crumble, Submission

The study of informal subcultures, which include the subculture of football fans in Eastern European countries, is one of the topical areas of modern sociology and sports management. Especially significant thing is the consideration of the subculture in terms of social order and social deviation, the problem of social values. The relevance of studying this phenomenon in modern conditions is determined by the fact that it not only makes it possible to fix the features of the subculture of the social group of football fans, but also the features of the formation of social rules of interaction.

Object of study: the practice of action and interaction, characteristic of the subculture of fan clubs in Eastern Europe.

Subject of research: standards and values that determine the difference in social group interpretations of conflict situations.

Objective: to assess the conflict situations of football fans in Eastern Europe.

To achieve this goal, the following tasks were necessary:

  1. To study the history of the development of football fan clubs in Europe as a whole, and separately in Eastern Europe.
  2. To systematize the features of the football fans subculture in Eastern Europe.
  3. Explore fan club practices in contemporary Eastern Europe and Russia.
  4. Investigate the features of the emergence and resolution of violence during football matches in the countries of Eastern Europe.

It is necessary to emphasize that the formation and application of the rules of interaction of participants in the fan movement has been little studied. This article presents the results of an empirical study of conflict situations arising during football matches. The study of the specifics of interaction and the value system characteristic of football fans requires the preliminary development of a system of categories, the justification of the objects of observation.

The main research strategy was chosen is to study the causes of deviant behavior of fans in Eastern European countries during football matches.

In this case, general research issues are:

1. Why do conflict situations arise?

2. Who is a participant and initiator of conflicts?

3. How do participants in conflict situations behave?

4. What is the difference between the behavior of football fans in Eastern Europe?

5. What is the manifestation of “social” and “non-social” in this type of interaction.

To answer these questions, it is necessary to clarify what the object of our study is, to indicate its “boundaries”, i.e. identify aspects of social interaction that are relevant to the disclosure of a topic related to conflict situations in football.

Conflict situation is understood as a process that has a space-time extension.

The object of observation is the conflict itself, as well as social events that mediate this conflict and manifest themselves in making certain decisions, in the implementation of actions by both the participants in the conflict and the social agents indirectly involved in it (the administration of football clubs, the media, authorities).

The main purpose of the study was to consider how violence arises during football matches in Eastern Europe, specifically in Russia and Turkey and what actions are typical for football fans involved in conflict situations, political, social and economic prerequisites for conflicts, how they develop and what measures are taken to eliminate problems arising during conflicts.

The object of the analysis were the articles of scientific journals and newspaper articles of the period 2013-2017 in the databases:


Science direct

Annual reviews

AEA journals


Info trac

Wiley online library

Sage journals online

Oxford journals

Cambridge journals online


Sports express

Sovetsky sport

Turkiey News – Revenge after 5 years

Fotomac – Great revenge

Fanatik – Hunting time

Star – Duel between Bilic and Terim after 5 years

Bugun – The derby of records

By type and character information is divided into: factual with indication of the author; commentary. As a result of the study, we viewed 5000 article headers. Defined 200 articles on the divine behavior of football fans in Eastern Europe. Analyzing the common and distinctive features of the articles, one can characterize the main elements of conflict situations in football in the countries of Eastern Europe and Russia.



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