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Comunication In Nursing

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Describe an example of communication from your recent clinical experience and discuss the factors that contribute to its outcomes.

The following assignment will describe communication such as verbal and non verbal communication along with active listening. It will be related to my recent clinical experiences. Looking at how communication can be effected and interrupted and how the use of effective communication can benefit patient care. The Model of communication I will be applying to my recent clinical experience is the Berlo Model of communication. In addition I will be sharing the outcomes of my recent clinical experience. For the purpose of confidentiality the patient name has been changed, as to comply with the NMC (2004) code of conduct.

The Berol Model of Communication helps us understand how communication works and how communications can either facilitate the development of a therapeutic relationship or create barriers (Stuart and Sundee 1995, cited in Riley 200). Communication involves both receiving messages and giving messages; a two way method spoken words and nonverbal messages.

The Berol Model of communication has four distinct components.

Source -Sends a message through a channel to a receiver (another person).

Message-someone shares an idea, feeling or information with another person.

Channel-The way the information is being expressed is the channel.

Receiver-Once the message has been received the receiver then decodes the information sent.

According to Berlo-The Sender encodes the message through his speaking and writing skills. The receiver decodes the message through their listening and reading skills. Both sending and receiving are influenced by knowledge, attitudes, experiences, and skills, are affected by the channel through which the message was sent. Communication when a person (source) sends a message through a channel to a receiver (another Person) once the message is received the receiver sends a message back to the source. In hospital environment there are many factors that could interfere with this process such as patient's anxiety the environment, noise so messages are interrupted or wrongly interpreted and this can create barriers to communication the patient could be in pain. Cultural, language, disabilities, such as a hearing impediment can affect the communication process. Berol's approach is rather different from what seems to be suggested from more straight, forward Transmission, models in that he places greater emphasis on dyadic (having two elements) communication, therefore stressing the role of the relationship between the source and the receiver as an important variable in the communication process.

There are two principle ways in which we transmit messages to other people: by verbal and non verbal Communication; verbal communication refers to the use of speech and its content. While words are vital, aspect of getting a message across 'it appears that 60-80% of the actual meaning of speech is conveyed through non verbal communication. (Taylor et al 1977).

When two or more people are together they cannot but communicate (Watziuawick et al (1968). There are two types of communication verbal and non verbal communication. Verbal communication has two components, voice tone and language usage; the content of the message. Voice tone can add meaning to words. The tone of a person's voice can add meaning to words. The tone of voice gives a good idea of how that person is feeling. Voice tone places emphasis where the speaker intends, for example how the word yes can assume different meaning by varying tones, if said softly, it can mean friendliness if said loudly can mean anger; if said sharply can mean annoyance. Words can create understanding or complete misunderstanding depending on how they are used. Words should have the same meaning for the person to whom we are speaking to as they do for ourselves.

Paralanguage refers to the way in which something is said pitch, tone, speed, volume of voice, accent, pause, speech, volume of voice, accent, pauses, speech dyfluencies etc (Hargie1997). The term "paralanguage" defines the aspect of verbal communication which we use to express the meaning that our words convey. It concerns how we use language, rather than what we say. It includes the tone of voice, the speed with which we speak and our use of "filler" sounds such as "um" and"ur". Such communication can be said to be vocal rather than verbal (Roper, Logan and Tierney 1980).

Non-verbal communication involves sending messages without using words it is conveyed by body language, facial expression eye contact, for example a patient may verbally explain to the Nurse that they are comfortable and not in pain as not to bother who she/he sees as "as a very busy Nurse" Yet the patient's body language conveys a completely different message facial expression they look distressed and agitated and uncomfortable. Just listening to a patient is ineffective on its own the Nurse much watch, listen whilst assessing the patient holistically as not oversee something as important as distress or pain. A large part of nursing care involves verbal and non-verbal communication. One of the most important forms of communication is the therapeutic communication a Nurse has with her patient the human element the Nurse can bring her compassion and empathy to the Nurse patient relationship which proves positive and effective in the patient's recovery. Therapeutic communication reinforces the Nurse patient relationship it can help cut through barriers of Culture and gender, establish a connection if there was a breakdown of communication. Help in a situation where empathy is needed being sensitive to the needs of a patient and any concerns or anxieties they have it is important to be aware of how someone is feeling just as important as the medical care they receive whilst in hospital. Therapeutic communication allows the patient to feel that someone cares in their time of need. It is important that the Nurse has a therapeutic relationship with the patient it establishes a sense of trust and mutual understanding between Nurse and patient.

Effective communication is dependent on the communicators' several abilities within the verbal language component, notably those of thinking, speaking, listening, reading and writing. However the necessary skills within the body language component are also of enormous importance (Roper, Logan and Tierney,



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