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China And Japan

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The industrial revolution was one of the greatest explosions in science and technology. From the steam engine to the creation of factories, it changed the life of even the average peasant. It was impossible for one area to not become influenced by the industrial revolution. However, some areas were becoming more industrialized than others. In the Eastern Hemisphere, the west was becoming increasingly more industrialized than the east. And because of this, the east was suffering from lack of industrializing itself. The east could not avoid western penetration or rather, becoming influenced by the west. Two examples of such eastern nations are China and Japan, who tried to remain rooted in their culture and avoid western penetration.

China was extremely ethnocentric, in that they believed that they were still superior to all other nations. For example, whenever a product came from outside China, they would put it aside, believing that it was completely useless. The emperor of China even restricted European presence in China. Ultimately it had put a damper on European goods. Europe had to pay with large amounts of silver bullion to receive goods like Chinese silk and tea. The British then started trading opium with the Chinese, believing that it would raise profits for them. Once they became addicted, China began paying with silver for more opium. China, knowing they had both a financial and a drug problem, stopped trading opium with Britain. Britain, now afraid that they would be missing out on a lot of silver, became outraged by the Chinese actions and went to war with China. This was called the Opium War. However due to China's reluctance to become industrialized, Britain's victory was inevitable. After the Opium War, Europe attacked China with unequal treaties; treaties that completely undermined Chinese authority. Europeans received extraterrestrial rights in China. They were not subjected to Chinese law, instead they were able to use European laws against the Chinese. They forced China to open up several ports for all foreign access. Due to its arrogance and inability to industrialize, China was vulnerable to western penetration

Japan was almost, if not completely, as ethnocentric as China. They banned all foreigners from Japan, including Europe and America. However this proved useless once Japan was also forced to sign unequal treaties. They had seen the Europeans' navy and army and so to avoid war and an inevitable defeat, Japan had no choice but to agree to the unequal treaty. They had to open ports to outsiders and had to give foreigners immunity to Japanese law. Japan chose not to fight back to protect their culture, and they became vulnerable to western penetration.

Both Japan and China had to face a very strong western influence that wanted to expand their influence across to them. As a result of their arrogance, they had to sign treaties that gave them no power and surrender



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