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Biology 181 Essay

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Define the products of light-dependent reactions and the Calvin Cycle.

в-Ў Cells use the energy and reducing power captured by the light-dependent reaction to make organic molecules

в-Ў Calvin Cycle- For every 3 molecules of CO2 that enter the cycle, 1 molecule of the 3-carbon compound, glyceraldenyde 3-phosphate (G3P) is produced. The process requires energy stored in ATP and NADPH which are generated by the light-dependent reactions. This process occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.

в-Ў Light is required indirectly for different segments of the co2 reduction reactions

в-Ў Calvin cycle is also known as C3 photosynthesis.

в-Ў CO2 binds to RUBP in carbon fixation, forming two 3-crabon molecules of PGA

в-Ў Plants in corporate carbon divide into sugars in the Calvin cycle, which is driven by the ATP and NADHP produced in the light-dependent reactions

Describe the properties and habitats of C3, C4, and CAM plants

в-Ў Plants that fix carbon using only C3 photosynthesis (calvin cycle) are called C3 plants

в-Ў C4 photosyntheses-PEP is carboxylated to form a 4-carbon compound using the enzyme PEP carboxylase

в-Ў C4 plants are corn, sugarcane, and a number of other grasses.

в-Ў C4 photosynthesis habitat is a hot climate. Without a hot climate photorespiration would remove more than half of the carbon fixed

в-Ў Photorespiration results in the decreased yields of photosynthesis. C4 and CAM plants circumvent this problem through modifications of leaf architecture and photosynthesis chemistry that locally increase CO2 concentrations. C4 plants isolate CO2 production spatially, while CAM plants isolate it temporarily.

в-Ў C4 pathway is utilized at night, C3 pathway during the day

в-Ў Cactus plants are CAM plants/while flowers are CAM plants

в-Ў Stomata- opening in leaves through which CO2 enters and water vapor is lost, in CAM plants they open during the night and close during the day. This is reverse to most plants

List and describe the 4 components of cellular membranes.

в-Ў Phospholipid bilayer- does not include water soluble molecules from nonpolar interior of the bilayer. This later is a permeability barrier and a matrix for proteins. An example of a phospholipid bilayer would be glucose.

в-Ў Transmembrane proteins- in charge of the transports. It actively and passively transports the molecules across the membrane kind of like an escort. Sometimes channels are used to passively transport the molecules across the membrane. Other times info is transmitted through receptors

в-Ў The interior protein network- determines the shape of the cell. For example: red blood cells. This component also helps proteins line coated pits and bind to specific molecules.

в-Ў Cell surface markers- create a protein/carbohydrate chain shape characteristic of individual. This component also has to do with tissue recognition. In order to recognize the tissue it also has a chain shape. Its

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