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Audio Class Notes and Song Analysis

Essay by   •  April 29, 2019  •  Study Guide  •  2,037 Words (9 Pages)  •  741 Views

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* never email music

* ZIP files

* stop don’t pause


Song Analysis 
Drums, Synthesiser, Organ, Vocals, Background vocals have same timing, Tapping, Bass guitar, Lots of percussion, Upbeat , Bell was panning (left, right, and both), Tempo changed but pretty medium, Low pulsing throughout song, Wet reverb on main vocals, Occasional guitar riffs, Structure was intro, A, B, C, D, etc - 8 beat measures, one is 10, beats to keep it different, Reggae genre but a bit of hybrid, Bob Marley was artist, Fairly wide dynamic range, Some instruments blend, some don't

- Amplitude and volume are described as the same thing
- Doesn’t matter if a tone is repeated slower/faster, it’ll sound the same because it’s the same noise
- Drums are made differently (shapes, texture, hand/stick) - kinetic energy (from how the stick hits the drum that vibrates the air that touched the ear’s hairs) transde----
- In a studio, the ear is a microphone (wire, preamp, analog digital converter, computer)


12 semitones = 1 octav


ALT - “auditioning” let go of alt to leave it there or stop clicking and it’ll go back

COMMAND - unsolos all solo tracks

Double click - goes back to default (0)

SHIFT - grouping


“Punching in” - hit play - records certain section

Click and drag area - auto punch record - auto records section

Split - ctrl-S - so click in ruler


44,100 Hz is used for audio (44.1 KHz) {ex cd}

44,800 Hz is used for video (48 KHz) {ex dvd}

GAIN - controls the volume

  • Input gain or output gain
  • The gain can be adjusted by the end of the microphone wire and the input of the computer/mixer
  • Don’t change the output fader, change the input gain
  • System preferences and choose the Samson Mic as our input and Creston (HDMI system) for output {can’t pick mic as output because it’s not a speaker} make sample rate same and choose the smallest block size
  • Keep buffer size to 32 {if crackling noises happen up it to multiples of 32 - 64, 128, etc)

Vowels have a repeating waveform (because of having one note/tone) while consonants DON’T have a repeating waveform

Lock the wav and ctrl+S to cut them into separate pieces


Kilohertz humans can hear (on the exam)*

        ** 20 Hz up to 20,000 Hz **


Interview Assignment Project - Due on March 19th

        Rent a nice mic

        Interview someone but practice directing “compress your answers)

Good recording, using microphone properly (close to their mouth like under so the s’s and p’s don’t pop and that the person stays still), ambiance (example subway - asking people if they got to work on time etc or background music etc), reaper editing - unnecessary rambling or any um’s are appropriate


  • Sound
  • Sound is a disturbance of the atmosphere that human beings can hear (sound is a disturbance is objective - outside of us that happens even though we cant hear it - ex: tree falls in a forest and no one hear it) (humans can hear is subjective - ear and ear drum and the conversion - ear converts sounds in brain {the brain filters the environment}) *objective vs subjective*
  • Frequency implies a pattern
  • Sound moves through a medium (sound waves - vibrations)
  • Wavefront and wavelength definitions
  • Octaves - 8 notes c->c - unique to sound
  • 20 is too low and 20,000 is too high (for speakers to produce)
  • Speed of sound - 1130 ft/s (this is called the “rate”)
  • Transmitted or reflected off a wall
  • Diffraction - wavelength to opening
  • Normal air pressure = silence (no change in atmospheric pressure)
  • Interference - the sum of two waveforms so they cancel eachother out (180 deg out of phase)
  • “Sound sculpture” - “standing wave”
  • Noise cancellation headphones work by sending outside sounds out by 180 deg
  • Wavelength (distance sound travels before the wave repeats) waveform (the shape of that wave) period (the time it takes for the wave to complete a cycle) frequency (how many times the wave repeats - in hz)
  • Lambda - 1130 hz wavelength = 1130 ft/s / frequency -> 1130/1130 = 1 so Lambda = 1 foot (ex 2: 1130/2260 = L = ½ hz)
  • Frequency = (When L=2 ft) F = 1130/2 = 565 Hz
  • Wavelength of 20 Hz = 1130/20 = 56.5 ft
  • Wavelength of L = 3 inches -> 1/4 ft so 1130 / 1/4 = flip it so 11130x4 = 4520 Hz
  • Cause of police car driving past - Doppler Effect *
  • Acoustics
  • 5 parameters - 1. The audience must clearly hear all of the music with the proper balance between instruments, and the proper tonal balance for each instrument. 2. The performer must clearly hear himself and the other performers. 3. Reverberation should be appropriate to the style of the music. 4. Extraneous sounds must be inaudible in the concert space. 5. The sound of the concert should be inaudible outside of the concert space.
  • 100 ft, sound would arrive in 100/1130 so 1/11.3 so 0.088 seconds or 88 milliseconds
  • 130/1130 = 0.115 -> 115-88=27 milliseconds so if you had a bunch of reflections, it could really compromise the final sound
  • Time values*
  • Chart on amplitude


Diegetic - visual sounds in movies (dialogue, sound effects, ambience)

Laugh tracks and voice overs are non-diegetic


Try on mac if not just write what i would do and try to play it on quicktime and match it up in reaper


ARCHIVING WORK { in reaper }

  1. Buy external drive 2T
  2. Plug it in
  3. Open the project [in reaper and make sure all media is there and make sure cursor is at beginning]
  4. File > save project as > external drive > create sub directory for project > copy all media into project directory > save
  5. Delete backups (save first/important ones)



Just know everything in the reading

  • Cion article

Reaper test sometime soon

Assignment - create 3 sonic signatures (ringtones, light motifs, sonic branding - sounds for a specific item, etc)

        Ex: computer turning on (tropical)



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