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American History 1301 - Slavery

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American History  1301:  Politics of the British Empire: Charles I, Oliver Cromwell, Charles II, James II, Queen Mary and King William of Orange

  1. Puritan Triumph  (In England)
  1. Charles I and Archbishop Laud  1640-1649
  1. Laud: imposed Anglican Bible on Calvinists (Puritans)
  2. Charles I: demands of Parliament, Absolute Monarchy
  1. 1647:  Puritans,  Oliver Cromwell, Civil War
  2. 1649: Puritans dominate Parliament, Republican Commonwealth, Charles I beheaded, Cromwell rules, dictatorship, death in 1659.
  3. End of Puritan Triumph
  1. 1660-1685:  Restoration:  Charles II
  1. Restoration Colonies:    Brother of Charles II is Duke of York, both use land to repay debts
  1. North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania,  New Amsterdam (New York, New Jersey, Delaware)
  2. Characteristics of each colony, Proprietary or Royal, Religion, Representative Assembly, etc.  (Consult outline on founding of colonies)
  1. Puritan Crisis:  Colonial 1670-1720’s
  1. Colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island
  2. Separatists, Puritans
  3. Economic downturn, Spiritual loss, Failure of Puritan state
  4. Witch trials:  Salem,  1692:  Thesis: Wealthy v  Poor, 175 arrested, 20 hung (19 women)
  1. Charles II and Massachusetts:
  1. Mercantilism
  1. Navigation Acts: England controls colonial trade via ships, produce, ports
  2. Revenue Act of 1673
  1. Customs officials, salaries, Plantation dues
  2. New England colonies slow to enforce, especially Massachusetts
  3. Common practices:  trade, smuggle, French, Dutch
  1. 1679:  Great Britain troops, legal action, New Hampshire
  2. 1684: Massachusetts charter annulled due to violations
  1. James II  (1685-1688)  Absolute Monarch
  1. Address issue of Massachusetts, goal of actions,
  2. Dominion of New England
  1. Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire
  2. Sir Edmund Andros  (Bkgd)
  3. Colonial assemblies, religion, town meetings, land titles, quitrents
  1. Glorious Revolution of 1688
  1. James II alienated English and Parliament, bloodless revolution
  2. Queen Mary and King William of Orange (1689-1701)
  1. Constitutional Monarchy
  1. Increase of personal rights
  2. Increase in power of Parliament
  1. New Ideas of Governing
  1. John Locke    
  1. No divine right to rule
  2. Legitimacy rests with the governed
  3. Individual inalienable rights to life, liberty, and property
  1. Colonial Reaction to the Glorious Revolution of 1688 (end of the Dominion of New England)
  1. Maryland: economic issues, religious issues, rebellion
  2. Massachusetts: Massachusetts & Maine, Royal colony, all males vote, representative assembly
  3. New York: Governor Francis Nicholson, Jacob Leisler, conflict with wealthy, Leisler branded a traitor, 1691: new royal governor, representative assembly
  4. 1696:  All colonial governors ( appt. by king)
  1. Enforce Navigation Laws, writs of assistance, Admiralty courts

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