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Tumor Suppressor Gene P53

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Tumor Suppressor Gene P53

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Introduction

        A gene refers to the fundamental make up of all genetic characteristics. Basically, genes constitute the DNA and they ensure formation of proteins in the body. Differences in the size of genes occur in human beings and they vary in relevance to bases. Tumor suppressor genes are those hereditary units that help in regulation of cell development. Specifically, Tumor suppressor gene p53 is essential since it directs and controls the manufacture of a protein named tumor protein p53. The protein produced enables the suppression of any kind of tumor in the human body. Primarily, it controls division of cells by regulating the speed in which they develop and divide thus ensuring uniformity in cellular production. Generally, this scientific research paper talks broadly about Tumor suppressor gene p53, its functions in the normal processes in the human body and the health issues related to it (Itahana, Y, Han, R, Barbier, S, Lei, Z, Rozen, S & Itahanna, 2015). Moreover, the paper explains where the gene is located, the various names researches use to refer to this gene, peer reviewed articles on the same and any other information relevant to the gene in question.

Functions of the tumor suppressor gene p53

        The p53 protein which is produced by the tumor suppressor gene p53 is found in the center of all the cells in the human body. The p53 gene can be compared to another one called Rb gene since both their indulgence prevent any form of tumor development. For instance, when an individual is passed onto a single unit of p53 by their parents, they tend to be more susceptible to cancerous growths throughout their lifetime (Jennis, Kung, Basu, Budina-Kolomets, Julia, Leu &Porter, 2016). The name given to this kind of condition is Li-Fraumeni syndrome is usually very scarce. Despite these complex medical cases, genetic mutations in the suppressor gene p53 is usually evident in many tumor growths and thus participate in the whole process of tumor development. In regards to chromosomal location, gene p53 is closely associated with chromosome 17. The protein p53 is subsequently connected parallel to the DNA. The protein plays a very significant role and that is why it is directly attached to the deoxyribonucleic acid. When harmful substances such as poisonous chemicals and ultraviolet toxic rays impairs the normal functioning of the DNA, the decision whether the cell is damaged beyond repair or it will experience apoptosis is determined by the protein (Moore, D.A & LeQuesne, 2015). It triggers another gene to manufacture a different protein called p21. This protein mingles with another protein cdk2 which is responsible for continuous cell multiplication in the body. When restoration can be done on the DNA, p53 directs other genetic molecules such as the DNA fix proteins and p53R2 cistron to repair the harm. On the other hand, when the DNA is damaged and cannot in any way be fixed, the protein intercepts in the process. It stops the continuous division of the cell and directs it to destruct itself. Through this act, cells which possess genetically mutated DNAs are prevented from dividing thus inhibiting growth of unnecessary tumors in the human body. Scientists over the years refer to p53 as the “guardian of the genome” since it plays an important role in controlling how cells divide and it also inhibits development of tumors.

Health complications associated with Tumor suppressor gene p53

        In a cell, there are numerous processes that occur. These activities can both be negatively and positively affected by diverse situations that are experienced in any genetic make-up. The key negative controller in the cell cycle is the protein p53. Any form of modification interference by mutation that affects p53, or when the protein during its activities mistakenly associates with oncogene can lead to chronic cancer situations.

Cancer of the breast

         Breast cancer is a type of disorder where some cells grow rapidly to form tumors around the breast region. The disease is more common in women than in men. Hereditary changes that occur in the Tumor suppressor gene p53 enormously encourages the development[a] of breast cancer in humans as well as other types of cancers. This is as a result of a certain type of scarce syndrome referred to as Li-Fraumeni syndrome (Liu, Zhang, Wang, Ly, Belyi, Xu-Monette, Feng, 2014). The genetic mutations are however assumed to be responsible for a small percentage of breast cancer situations. Scientists have proven that alterations in the genetic systems that are not inherited are more prevalent compared to the inherited ones. These genetic transformations are said to be obtained in the lifetime of individuals and can only be found in cancerous cellular molecules. They are however not completely linked to the syndrome that causes cancer. In most cases, the genetic alterations transform the amino acids present in the p53 protein, this enables reduction or full destruction of the proteins that suppresses tumor. The alteration of the protein p53 makes it vulnerable thus it becomes completely incapable of controlling cell division as required. Basically, it becomes difficult for it to regulate processes such as apoptosis in the genetically damaged DNA. Subsequently, there can be uncontrollable growth and accumulation of damaged DNA cells which may eventually result in a tumor. Comparisons have been done by scientists and the interpretation is that breast cancers that occur without alterations in the p53 gene have better prognosis. Breast cancers associated with p53 gene mutations are also difficult to manage since they can reoccur and are often resistant to most forms of medication.

Bladder cancer

        Bladder cancer is a disorder where certain cells rapidly develop and accumulate to form a tumor in the bladder. The main cause of bladder cancer is smoking. Scientists explain that mutation that occurs in the tumor suppressor gene p53 due to smoking leads to the formation of the malignant tumor in the bladder. The dangerous chemicals associated with the fume which leads to the genetic alteration include, 4-aminobiphenyl and 2-naphthyline. They interfere with the amino acids in p53 thus preventing the protein from effectively igniting significant processes such as apoptosis (Liu, Zhang, Wang, Ly, Belyi, Xu-Monette, Feng, 2014). This results into continuous growth of the mutated DNA accumulating to form a tumor. These mutations which are usually somatic when they occur in the tumor suppressor gene p53 enables prediction of the advancement of the disease and if it will resist treatment.

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