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Struggle For Control Fo North America Frq

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In the 1740's, Great Britain and France both realized that a struggle for control of North America was unavoidable. With the French's involvement in the fur trade and the English's concern with their cash crops the desire for more land grew, which ultimately caused clashes between the two empires.

France pushed westward in pursuit of its one valuable resource, the beaver. European fashion setters valued beaver fur hats for their warmth and luxurious appearance. Demands for the fur grew. French voyageurs even recruited Indians into the fur business in order to help with the hunt. French fur-trappers and their Indian partners ranged from all over North America in pursuit of the beaver. They hiked, rode, snow shoed, sailed, and paddled across astonishing distances and ever deeper into the heart of the continent.

Tobacco continued to be the main crop in the English colonies but intense tobacco cultivation quickly exhausted the soil, creating a nearly insatiable demand for land. Relentlessly seeking fresh fields to plant tobacco, English growers pushed ever farther westward.

Because of English expansion, French anticipating conflict, planted several fortified posts. Early clashes between the two empires begun with King William's and Queen Anne's War. Hostility quickly enlarged between the two and before long both sides where recruiting whatever Indian allies they could. These actions obviously show that both, Great Britain and France knew that major war for North America was unavoidable; as later proved with the seven years war.

In the 1740's France and England both realized that war for power over North America was inevitable. Due to French's contribution to the fur trade and their hunt for the beaver and English's concern with their cash crops and their need for adequate harvesting land, military clashes between the two soon produced.

Political structure at that time led to Bismarck's success in war. With the untimely death of the Danish King, Christian VII, both Schleswig and Holstein refused to recognize the dynastic succession of the Danish King Frederick VII and appealed to the Frankfurt Assembly for recognition of Schleswig-Holstein as an independent German state, free from the Danish crown (doc2). With the declaration of an all-German war on the Kingdom of Denmark by the Frankfurt Assembly, Prussia immediately prepared a small military force to fight for the independence of Schleswig and Holstein (docs3,4). Prussia's aid proved victorious with the Danish defenses easily besieged (doc5). The English heard about the success of Prussia and of their preparations for an invasion of Jutland. The English foreign ministry quickly advised Prussia that Prussian occupation of Jutland would not be acceptable and Prussian forces should withdraw or else Her Majesty's Royal Navy will intervene on part with the Danes (doc6). Russia, also aware of Prussian occupation of Jutland and control of the Baltic Sea, advised them to withdraw or military intervention will be made (doc7). Because of the possible interference by Russia and Great Britain, Prussia had no choice but to immediately stand down (doc8). The Treaty of London was then signed between Denmark, Prussia, Russia, Sweden and the United Kingdom in 1852 stating that the twin duchies of Schleswig and Holstein shall remain attached to the Danish Crown and The Kingdom of Denmark will make no attempt to absorb, annex or incorporate the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein into the state of Denmark (doc9). Bismarck was not about to let this situation remain (doc10).

Bismarck's use of warfare to gain German unification resulted in 3 major wars which all proved triumphant for Bismarck and Prussia. Included among these wars were the Prussian-Danish War, the Austro-Prussian War a.k.a. the Seven Weeks War, and the Franco-Prussian War. Bismarck's intricate plan first started with the setting up of Austria through Schleswig and Holstein. In 1863 the king of Denmark proclaimed the twin duchies of Schleswig and Holstein an integral part of the Kingdom of Denmark and will be incorporated in the Danish State (doc18). At this moment Bismarck saw his opportunity to trap Austria. Bismarck knew Austria will be forced to side with Prussia against the Danes because they wish to keep their appearance of superiority in the German Confederation and because neither Austria nor Prussia wished the other to appear more devoted to the German states (doc21). Otto von Bismarck was not concerned whether or not the Germans in Holstein were happy but only cared about the expansion of Prussian power and the seizure of Schleswig and Holstein by Prussia (doc20). Austria and Prussia were now allied together along with Saxony and Hanover in order liberate the twin duchies of Schleswig and Holstein from the Kingdom of Denmark (doc23). The joint forces of Austria and Prussia threatened war with the king of Denmark (doc24). King Christain IX of Denmark was unable to count on support of England, France nor Russia and is forced to abdicate, ending the Prussian-Danish War (doc 25). Ending the Prussian-Danish War, the Joint Austrian-Prussian Agreement was made. Of this agreement Prussia will occupy and administer Schleswig, Austria will occupy and administer Holstein, Austria will allow for a transportation and communication corridor through Holstein, for the purpose of serving Prussian troops in Schleswig, and Austria will allow for the construction of a Prussian naval base in Kiel which is located on the Baltic Sea coast of Holstein (doc26). By having a Prussian naval base in Austria's new turf and controlling of the transportation and communication through Holstein



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