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Scenario One Problem Definition: Usa World Bank

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Embryonic Stem Cell Research

Stem cells have become the focus of many articles. The have been scrutinized because of their awesome capabilities and their controversial nature of the embryonic stem cell. Stem cells are able to convert into many cell types. The human body has various stem cells. This paper will cover the controversy of using human embryonic stem cells.

First, a little history on stem cells, particularly embryonic stem cells. Stem cells are important because it is believed that they can be grown into replacement for almost any part of the human body. In November of 1998 several scientist form the University of Wisconsin developed an immortal line of embryonic stem cells taken from embryos donated by IVF clinics. Shortly after, another scientist, John Hopkins, concluded similar cells could be taken from aborted fetuses. Around 1999, the National Bioethics Commission concluded that the government should fund research on embryonic stem cells. In 2001, President Bush announced there would be no funding for research on embryos, but did allow funds for 60 stem cell lines created from spare embryos. The law stated "U.S. funds may not be used for 'the creation of a human embryo' for research purposes, or for ' research in which a human embryo or embryos are destroyed, discarded, or knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death. The embryo is defined as any organism not protected as a human subject under other laws 'that is derived by fertilization, parthenogenesis, cloning, or any other means from one or more human gametes or diploid cells. (Smucker 6)" The law basically remains the same today.

According to the Advancing Science, Serving Society website both the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation and the Christopher Reeves foundation support the research of embryonic stem cells. According to JDRF website

"Several recent studies underline stem cell research as a basis for critically-needed therapies for type 1 diabetes. Insulin-producing cells have already been created in embryonic stem cells from mice as well as in preliminary studies using embryonic cell lines from humans. In addition, adult stem cells from mouse bone marrow have shown therapeutic potential in mice. (1)" The Christopher Reeves Paralysis Foundation states " human pluripotent stem cells have a remarkable therapeutic potential to save and restore lives damaged by injury and disease. They have the capacity to become any cell in the body without being able to develop into a complete human being; they are immortal and seem to be able to divide without limitation; and they can be genetically manipulated with great ease, which gives them enormous therapeutic utility. Given the scientific and medical benefits that will likely accrue, the Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation supports the responsible pursuit of human pluripotent stem cell research within the strict scientific and ethical framework stipulated in the National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Research Involving Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, issued August 23, 2000

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