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Political System in Vietnam

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There have been 80 years since established so far, the Communist Party of Vietnam has been constantly fighting for its own independence, freeing its liberation from almost a century under the control of western countries and leading citizens to the great success in the 30-year struggle against strong enemies. After the unification, the CPV has carried out significant reforms which have changed the whole aspects of Vietnamese people including society, economy and politics. The present Vietnam’s political system consists of: the CPV, political organizations, social-political organizations and mass media. (wattpad, 2010)

The CPV was formed on February 3, 1930 with the first aims to make a Vietnam of strength, independence, rich and democracy and create an equal, civilized society. The CPV stands for the interests of working class – peasants, worker, other pushing and the nation. The national Constitution claimed that the CPV was the unique force which could lead the whole nation and society and was the major factor deciding all of the successes of the Vietnamese revolution. The CPV considers Marxism-Leninism and Ho Chi Minh Thoughts as the firm ideological foundation, the instruction for its works, encouraging the nation’s traditions and absorbing other nations’ special ideas. For the organization and structure, the CPV is set up in accordance with the state administrative apparatus from central level to the provincial, city, district, and commune levels as well as in administrative agencies, schools, businesses and political, military units and police forces. Party cells are the basis of the Party's platform.

The National Assembly is the highest representative body of people and the highest organ of the state of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Also, it is the only one which can have enough right to make constitutional and legislative. The National Assembly carries out three major functions: legislative, deciding important issues of the nation, exercising the highest supervision over all activities of the State (Cong thong tin dien tu Chinh Phu, n.d.). Firstly, for legislative function, beside adopting the Constitutional and the law, the National Assembly makes important decisions on the legislative program. Secondly, working as the highest national power, the National Assembly is the body which decides all the fields in developing the country as the socio-economic development plans, issues about financial and monetary policies, budgets, taxes. Another important of the National Assembly is electing the President of the State, its Chairman and the Prime Minister. Besides, “the National Assembly also resolves war and peace”, Cong thong tin dien tu Chinh Phu claimed. It can claim the emergency situation if it has evidences and then give solutions or measures to ensure the security of the whole nation.  Finally, for the highest supervision, the National Assembly do this function over all activities of the nation including itself, its Standing Committee, its Committees, its individual deputies and  the Ethnic Council.

The State President who is supposed to be the Head of State is elected by the National Assembly among its delegates to be a representative of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam in domestic and foreign affairs (Cong thong tin dien tu Chinh Phu, n.d.). As provided in the 1992 Constitution, the President has twelve powers, mainly in both executive and legislative. The major and important powers which can be named are to announce the publishing of the Constitution, laws and enactments; to be the leader of armed forces and take up the Chairmanship of the National Defense and Security Council; to suggest to the National Assembly’s election, appointment or dismissal of the Vice President, the Prime Minister, Chairman of the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuracy.

The Government is the executive branch of the National Assembly and the highest governmental body of the State (Embassy of the Socialist Republic in of Vietnam In the United States of America, n.d). The government under the leadership of the State implements the fields of politics, socio-economics, culture, society, national defense and security and international relationships. Also, it is in charge of ensuring the efficiency of the Constitutions and laws which is promulgated by the National Assembly and protect the sustainability and improvement of the people’s material; and spiritual life. The government is composed of Prime Minister – a National Assembly delegate, Deputy Prime ministers, Ministers and others.

The Supreme People’s Court which is set up by law is the highest judicial organ of the State. It oversees and monitors the judicial works of local People’s Courts.

The Supreme People’s Procuracy supervises the enforcement of the Constitution and law by Ministries, Ministerial-level organs, governmental bodies, local administration, social and economic organizations, mass organizations, armies and people. It implements the right to lawsuit, ensures critical and uniform performances of the law. Local People’s Procuracy and Military Procuracy supervise the operation of the law and do the right to lawsuit as provided by the law.

Besides, there are many organizations reflecting the interests of the people into the political system according to permanent principles. The main social-political organs in Vietnam named are Vietnamese Fatherland Front, Vietnamese Women’s Union, Vietnamese Trade Union, Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union and other special organizations.


Even though legislatures are usually known as lawmaking bodies, they also make up many others important responsibilities. First of all, the most important of legislature is the close connection between citizens and the nation. The legislature is considered as the voice of the people because it has to base on the people’s ideas, proposals to make laws. Then, legislatures also play a sole educational role. Each of legislators makes complicated issues easier to see and specify policy choices. They take advantage of their resources and ideas to choose information from a lot of sources and to solve conflicts or arguments and finally presenting theirs findings with briefly, concisely and logical orders. This educational function has spread more and more due to the development of the society, the expansion of the government’s scope and then the citizens can easily approach the legislative process, especially through TV.



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