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Since physics actually means the physical world; Meta involves the non-material world, such as the mind and spiritual brief. According to Encarta Encyclopedia, "Metaphysics," is a branch of philosophy that entails the "nature of ultimate reality" (p.1) According to the Hummingbird N Company's, "The Metaphysical Sciences," the dictionary defines this as "A mental philosophy dealing with the nature and causes of being and knowing" (p.1). H. J. Patton (1948), say's in Immanuel Kent Ground Work of the Metaphysics of Morals, "so act that your will can regard itself at the same time universal law thought its maxim" (p.34). The interoperation was that the universal law was the human's as rational beings. Therefore, act, as you will but at the same time having the rational beings at the maximum of self-value. Patton goes on to say the rational being is having universal law at is maxim, is giving ones self-supreme value (p. 35). Therefore, Patton feels making decisions should be based on maxims of the universal law (p. 108). Which means all decisions should be made rationally.

According to "Socrates" in Encarta encyclopedia, he believed that his calling was to pursue philosophy, he pursued teaching and engaging in self-examination of ones soul (p.1). Jacques Maritain (1964), Moral Philosophy, Socrates questioned traditional norms (p. 6). He did not write any books and also did not establish a regular school of philosophy (Encarta, "Socrates" p.1). Plato, one of his dispels, portrayed Socrates as "hiding behind an ironical profession of ignorance, known as Socrates irony (Encarta, "Socrates," p.1). According to Castell, Brochert, and Zucker, in Introduction to Modern Philosophy, Socrates would engaged in debates with people, playing devils advocate, trying to invoke people to think about religion and other none material aspect (p. 3). Socrates got in trouble for this and was sentenced to exile, but verses doing this he commit suicide. The question is, if he did not commit suicide would he be as well known now.

The actual term metaphysics was believed to originate in Rome around 70 BC, according to Encarta Encyclopedia (p. 1). This also states it that it started with Andronicus of Rhodes with his edition of Aristotle's work (p. 1). Aristotle's Metaphysics he questioned subjects on substance, causality, the nature of being and the existence of God (p. 1).

Aristotle argued in favor of a divine being (Encarta, "Aristotle," p.2). He described this the Prime Mover: "who is responsible of the unity and purposefulness of nature. God is perfect and therefore the aspiration of all things in the world, because all things desire the share of perfection" (Encarta, "Aristotle, "p.2).


Logic is a method of careful ways of thinking how can one think clearly, which the outcome is truth. According to the Encarta Encyclopedia, "Logic," it is the science dealing with valid reasoning and or judgment (p.1). In the Encyclopedia Britannica, logic is the study of principle of logic (p.447). Encarta goes on to say, the validity of an argument should be eminent from the truth of the conclusions. If the outcome of the premises is false, then the validity of the conclusion is false (p.1). An example of this is "All mammals are four-footed animals; all people are mammals; therefore, all people are four-footed animal's" this is a valid argument with a false conclusion (p.1).

The classical or traditional logic was Aristotelian logic (Encarta, "Logic," p.1). This was a mathematical formula, syllogism argument is made up of statements of one of the following: "All A's are B's (universal affirmative), No A's are B's (universal negative), Some A's are B's (particular affirmative), or Some A's are not B's (particular negative)" (Encarta, "logic," P.1). Aristotle's research method was as follows: first collect or observation of data, then create a hypothesis or an educated guess, then test your hypothesis which is done by collecting more data, then formulate a theory, test the theory, lastly conclusion or law of nature. With this they broke all barriers except chemistry.

George Boole and Augustus De Morgan open a new field to logic, the symbolic and modern



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