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Philosophy Theories

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                                Philosophy Theories        

        In Epicurus's point of view, happiness is the main goal in each human being's life. According to him, every man's action is focused on achieving happiness and avoiding physical pain and mental disturbance. According to Martin,, (17-30), Epicurus describes happiness as the presence of pleasure and non-existence of pain and he, therefore, argues that people should avoid actions or events that are likely to bring pain and devote themselves to desires that only bring pleasure. In his theory, things that are likely to bring pain are such as getting involved in public life (he recommends isolation from social life) and focusing on attaining wealth among others.

        In a real-life scenario, his idea of avoiding pain, isolation and being reluctant in chasing fame and wealth doesn’t sound like a key to happiness but rather as a hindrance to happiness. These objections are based on the fact that, naturally, pain is inevitable and some events that bring pain to people are way out of their control and there is nothing they can do to stop it from happening. Example of such situations includes in a case of death of a loved one, sickness, and poverty among others. Secondly, studies have shown that people who live lonely lives are likely to be unhappy compared to extroverts who prefer an interactive life and isolation seems deviation from the happiness path. Lastly, people who have higher income and are content with their living standards seem happier than people living under low incomes.  Epicurus theory needs adjustments in line with the above objections for it to apply to real-life situations since some of its propositions are unrealistic and not familiar to the normal way of being happy.

                Aristotle looks at friendship as a union that exists only between two people who are virtuously alike. According to him, friends are supposed to love each other unconditionally and wish each other the best selflessly. His theory outlines that ideal friendships mean that people are not aiming at using each other for personal gains (Tachibana,  vol 2). However, in Kant's perspective friendships are a matter of duty and she highlights that duty should be based on respect to moral laws. According to Richard, (85-100) Kant’s idea of friendship contradicts Aristotle’s since Kant believes that an action should be justified with how morally good it is and not by affection as Aristotle suggests.

                Hobbes disapproves with both Kant’s and Aristotle idea on friendship. He argues that men are by nature enemies and friendships are only built with a motive of gaining a personal benefit (Sagar). Hobbes says that friendships are not more than power tools, people only bond as friends when they are aware that they will benefit from the bond in future (Sagar). To Hobbes, human beings are selfish creatures and incapable of acting selfless and friendships only lead to injustices and people betraying each other to protect their achievements (Sagar).



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