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Litertature Review, Smoking Ban

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Literature Review

The author has determined that literature related to the new no smoking legislation is relatively recent, due to the date the smoking legislation came into force in the UK (July 2007), however in light of this, not enough comprehensive research has been conducted on the effects the ban has had on the UK hospitality industry. Much of the existing literature comes from countries where similar smoking bans have been implemented. Due to the contemporary nature of the smoking ban, most of the literature has been utilised through reports and not based on academic publications.

Literature on the legislation is also controversial, with many conflicting viewpoints on whether the law will be either detrimental or beneficial to the hospitality industry. Before the author starts their own research, it is important to review all relevant literature to relate key readings to the authors work, moreover to develop a clear understanding of the topic area establishing theoretical viewpoints of issues and theories.

There are many arguments for and against a smoking ban, however the fact remains that the legislation has been implemented. Hospitality has always been a dynamic industry, fast paced and ever changing. The most successful businesses have always been the most adaptable to change, whether the changes are economic, demographic or on this case legal.

One major criticism of the no smoking legislation has been that it would be economically detrimental to the hospitality industry. In a report from Canada from when there was a partial smoking ban in place, Evans (2004) stated that the Ð''economic impact' study offers definitive proof that smoking bans...will lead to widespread devastation throughout one of Canada's largest employment sectors Ð'- the hospitality industry. The study shows smoking bans in several Ontario cities have had a real and dramatic impact on revenue. This report was conducted by both The Fair Air Association of Canada (FAAC) and The Pub and Bar Coalition of Canada.

Germain (2006) findings suggest however that it is likely patronage to bars, nightclubs and gaming venues would all increase with the introduction of total smoking bans in hospitality venues; however Germain's research is based solely on public opinion and does not review the viewpoints of any business or hospitality professionals who may be better informed to pass judgement. What Germains research does highlight however is that public opinion seems to be favorable towards the smoking ban; Germains sample does include 48% of regular smokers.

Opinion is certainly divided on how the legislation will affect the hospitality industry in the UK. It may be soon to comprehensively determine what the economic affect of the smoking legislation has been so far. A good measure may be to look abroad to countries where similar smoking bans have been implemented, and to see how businesses have been affected and what they have done to adapt.

New York's Smoke-Free Air Act was implemented in March 2003. Joossens (2006) New York's hospitality industry lobbied vigorously against the legislation, claiming that it would have a disastrous effect on bars and restaurants. In a report conducted for smoke-free-europe, Joossens cites:

"One year later...Since the law went into effect, business receipts for restaurants and bars have increased...employment has risen..." New York City Department of Finance (2004)

The report also identified that 23% of respondents said they were eating out more often due to the city's smoke-free legislation, whilst 4% said they are not eating out as often.

Another criticism of the smoking ban in the UK is that it will affect employment within the hospitality industry. The assumption being that businesses within the sector fail due to inability to comply with the ban and inability to cope with the loss of revenue forecasted, thus affecting peoples jobs. This



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