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Fools Crow

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The most important factors contributing to the end of Indian independence were a lack of one Indian government, disease and hunger caused by the Napikwans, and being viewed as savages and not people by the seizers. Specifically, the Indian government consisted of many bands governed by different chiefs,

It is important for us to know what Mountain Chief and Heavy Runner think...Mountain Chief wishes to deal harshly with the Napikwan, while Heavy Runner would seek to clean their long-shoes. The other chiefs fall in the middle and could perhaps be persuaded one way or the other (Welch 254).

The many bands that make up the Pikuni tribe cannot agree on how to deal with the Napikwans and therefore cannot reach peace or go to war. The Indians cannot succeed in war without forming one army,

Indian resistance crumbled in small-scale wars. In 1873, a group of Modocs fled their northern California reservation, took refuge in an area of lava beds, and fought off the Army for seven months before they were defeated and shipped to Indian territory (Calloway 13)

Without one Indian government to decide on Napikwan relations and without one army to fight against them, the Indians are unable to avoid losing their independence.

Additionally, the Napikwans brought diseases and hunger to the Indian tribes;

But the pioneers brought more diseases: Cholera, measles, and scarlet fever soon added to the toll of deaths in Indian villages. Emigrants hunted and frightened away game and exhausted timber resources, while their stock wore out grazing land along the trails (Calloway 8).

The Napikwans destroyed Indian land, gave them diseases, and depleted their resources. By doing this the Napikwans took away Indian independence since without learning the Napikwan techniques the Indians would die. Also, diseases killed Indian children, " In spite of their youth and inexperience, they knew, had known for some time, that the infant had died of the white-scabs...The sickness spread rapidly" (Welch 366). Diseases kill Indian children, killing Indian hope for the future.

Lastly, the Napikwans do not view the Indians as people but as savages,

Now the thought was centered in his mind. He pulled up just inside the pine grove and slid his rifle out of his scabbard.



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