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Film Study - Different Types Of Editing And Cut Shots

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Editing: the coordination between one shot with the next frames can be joined by several different types.

Fade-out: gradually darkens the end of a shot to black.

Fade-in beginning of a framel lightens the frame from black

Dissolve: briefly superimposes the end of a shot A and the beginning of shot B

Wipe: Shot A replaces Shot B by means of a boundary line line moving across the screen, wipes one image away while bringing about a new one.

Cut: the most common means of joining two shots; instantaneous change from one shot to another

Editing lets the film maker play with four different aspects: Graphic relations between shot A and shot B, Rhythmic relations between shot A and shot B, Spatial relations between shot A and shot B, and Temporal relations between shot A and shot B. Editing need not be graphically continuous

Graphic Relations:

Graphic match: links shots by graphic similarities, shapes, colors, overall composition or movement in shot A may be picked up in the composition of shot B

Rhythmic Relations:

When the filmmaker adjusts the length of shots in relation to one another, she or he is controlling the rhythmic potential of editing.

Spatial Relations:

Editing usually serves not only to control graphics and rhythm but also to construct film in space.

Kuleshov Effect: any series of shots that in the absence of an establishing shot prompts the spectator to infer a spatial whole on the basis of seeing only portions of the space. Editing cues to the spectator to infer a single locale.

Editing can also emphasize action taking place in separate places; ie cuts from one setting and time to another, this is parallel editing known as crosscutting, common way films construct a variety of spaces.

Temporal Relations.

First there is order/presentation of events, editing can control temporal succession in a film, Citizen Kane, series of flashback cut back to present.

Flashbacks: presents one or more shots out of their presumed story order

Flash Forward: rarer option for reordering story events, editing moves from the present to a future event, then returns to the present.

Elliptical Editing: presents an action such that it consumes less time on the screen than it does in the story, often used for mundane events, ie man climbing stairs, director can use a punctuation shot

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