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Expectancy Theory

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Expectancy Theory

... was developed in 1964 by Victor Harold Vroom, Professor at the Yale School of Management.

The expectancy theory says that motivation depends on a person's belief in the probability that an effort he makes will lead to good performance which will lead to receiving an outcome the person values.

The theory assumes that individuals..

 make conscious choices about which course of action to follow and choose the one that maximizes their pleasure and minimizes pain

 have different needs and value the outcomes differently

 choose between alternative actions based on the likelihood of an action resulting in the outcome they value

The main components of the theory

 Expectancy/ subjective probability

an individual's estimate and confidence whether a certain level of effort (E) will produce a certain level of performance (P)


 Instrumentality

is an individual's perception that its performance (P) will lead to desired outcome (O)


 Valance (V)

is the value the individual places on the outcome

F = (Eв†'P) x (Pв†'O) x V

пÑ"Ё Management



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